NMRC/CIL GENERAL ENGLISH-Preposition

Preposition

Preposition is a word that shows relation between noun or pronoun and the other words in sentence.

e.g. in, on, at, to, with, under, above, into, by, of etc
Preposition is always used before a
noun or pronoun and shows the relation of the noun or pronoun to the
other words in sentence. The following examples will help in better
understanding.
Example.

Subject + Verb
Preposition
Noun
The cat was sleeping on table
He lives in Paris
She looked at Stranger.
He will come in January.
Wedding ceremony will be held on 20th December.
I was waiting for you
Someone is knocking at The door.
She came by bus.

Prepositions show many relations (for different
nouns) in sentence. On the basis of relation they show, preposition may
be divided into following categories.

Preposition for time e.g. in, on, at, etc.
Preposition for place e.g. in, on, at, etc
Preposition for direction e.g. to, towards, into, through etc.
Preposition for agent e.g. by
Preposition for device, instrument or machines. e.g. on, by, with, etc.
Prepositions used after verbs to make prepositional verb. e.g. look at, look after, laugh at

Types of Preposition

The types of preposition are as follows:

1. Preposition for Time
2. Preposition for Place
3. Preposition for Direction
4.
Preposition for Agent
5. Preposition for Instrument
6. Prepositional Phrase 

Prepositions for Time. (in, on, at)

Prepositions used for time of different natures are in, on at etc.

Preposition Time Nature
In 1. Month or Year.
e.g. in January, in 1985
2. Particular time of day or month or year
e.g. in morning, in evening, in first week of January, in summer, in winter
3. Century or specific time in past etc
e.g. in 21st century, in stone age, in past, in future, in present
On 1. Day
e.g. on Monday
2. Date
e.g. on 5th of March, March 5
3. Particular day
e.g. on Independence Day, on my birthday,
At 1. Time of clock
e.g. at 5 O’clock, at 7:30 PM
2. Short and precise time
e.g. at noon, at sunset, at lunch time, at bed time, at the moment, at the same time

Examples.
          He was born in 1945.
          She will go to New York on 25th of March.
          The concert will begin at 7 O’clock.
          He gets up early in the morning.
          We enjoyed a lot in the summer.
          The president will deliver speech to public on Independence Day.
          She received a lot gifts on her birthday.
          Where were you at the lunchtime?
          I will call you at 12 A.M

Preposition for Place. (in, on, at)

Prepositions “in, on or at” are usually used for different places.

“In” is usually used for place which have some boundary (boundary may physical or virtual).
“On” is  used for surface 
“At” is used for specific place. 

Preposition Place Nature
In  Place having some boundary (physical or virtual boundary)
Examples.
In hall
In school
In a building
In a box
In a car
In library
In garden
In America
In room
In cupboard
On  Surface of something.
Examples.
On a table
On blackboard
On a page
On the wall
On the roof
On a map
At  Specific Place.
Examples.
At the entrance
At the bottom of glass
At front of the chair
At bus stop
At the edge of roof

Examples
          She lives in New York.
          Students study in library.
          The wedding ceremony will be held in the hall.
          There are some books on the table.
          The teacher wrote a sentence on blackboard.
          He was flying kite on the roof.
          Her parents were waiting for her at the entrance of school
          There was a huge gathering at bus stop.
          His house is at the end of street.

Preposition for Direction.
(
to, toward, through, into)

Prepositions like to, towards, through, into are
used to describe the direction. Following examples will help in better
understanding.
Examples.
         She went to the library.
         He jumped into the river.
         He ran away when he felt that someone was coming toward him.

Preposition for Agent. (by)

Preposition for agent is used for a thing which is cause of another thing in the sentence. Such prepositions are by, with etc. Following examples will help in better understanding.
Examples.
         This book is written by Shakespeare.
         The work was completed by him.
         The room was decorated by her.
         The tub is filled with water.

Preposition for device, instrument or machine.

Different preposition are used by different devices, instruments or machines. e.g. by, with, on etc. Following examples will help in better understanding.
Examples.
         She comes by bus daily.
         He opened the lock with key. 

Prepositional Verb

A prepositional phrase is a combination of a verb and a preposition. It is just a verb followed by a preposition.
Prepositional Phrase  =  Verb + Preposition
Some verbs need particular prepositions to be used
after them in sentences having a direct object. Such a verb with its
required preposition is called a prepositional phrase.
For example
He knocks at the door.

In above sentence “knock at” is prepositional phrase
which contains a verb “knock” and a preposition “at”. Without the use
of correct preposition after a prepositional verb in a sentence, the
sentence is considered to be grammatically wrong. For example if we
say, “he knocks the door”, it is wrong because it lacks the required
preposition “at”. So the correct sentence is “he knocks at the door”.

Prepositional Verbs are transitive and they have a
direct object in sentence. Some of the frequently used preposition verb
are, laugh at, knock at, listen to, look at, look for, look after, wait for, agree to, agree with, talk about, talked to

Examples.
             She is listening to music.
             She looked at the blackboard.
             We believe in God.
             They were waiting for the teacher.
             Do you agree with me?
             Do you agree to my proposal?
             Someone is knocking at the door.
             You should not rely on her.

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