DMRC/CIL GENERAL ENGLISH-ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE SHORT TRICKS PDF

The
Voice-There
are two ways to express an action of a subject in relation to its object

• Active voice


Passive voice

In “active
voice” subject acts upon object, while in “passive voice” object is acted upon
by subject. It can also be said, in “active voice” subject does a work on
object, while in “passive voice” object is worked on by subject. The normal
structure of an active voice sentence is subject+verb+object but
in passive the normal structure of sentence is reversed according to certain
rules and becomes like object+verb+subject. The real meaning of a
sentence does not change if the sentence is expressed either by active voice or
by passive voice. The active voice is mostly used in writing because it
gives a direct and more concise meaning. Passive voice is used sometimes due to
the following reasons.

  1. When
    intentionally hiding the subject of sentence. For example, a student who
    failed in exam might say, some chapters were not studied.
    Another example. Women were not treated as equals
  2. When
    passive voice better explain thought of sentence. For example, to say, cloth
    is sold in yards
    , is more meaningful than to say, Shop keepers sell
    cloth in yards
    .
  3. When
    passive voice better emphasizes the main though of the sentence. For
    example, a man who is being teased by another person might say in anger, “you
    will be beaten by me”
  4. When
    subject is not exactly known. For example, His watch was stolen. It
    is not known that who stole his watch, the subject (thief) is not exactly
    known so it is better to use passive voice for such sentence.There are
    certain rules for expressing a thought in passive voice or for changing a
    sentence from active voice to passive voice.

Fundamental
Rules for changing from active voice to passive voice

  1. The
    places of subject and object are interchanged i.e. the object shifts to
    the place of subject and subject shifts to the place of object in passive
    voice. Example.
    Active voice: I write a letter.
    Passive voice: I letter is written by me.
    Subject (I) of sentence shifted to the place of object (letter) and object
    (letter) shifted to the place of subject (I) in passive voice.
  2. Sometimes
    subject of sentence is not used in passive voice. Subject of sentence can
    be omitted in passive voice, if without subject it can give enough meaning
    in passive voice.Examples.
    Passive voice: cloth is sold in yards
  3. 3rd
    form of verb (past participle)
    is always used as main verb in
    sentences of passive voice for all tenses. Base form of verb or present
    participle will be never used in passive voice.
    The word “by” is used before subject in sentences in passive voice.Example.
    Active voice: He sings a song.
    Passive voice: A song is sung by him.
  4. The
    word “by” is not always used before subject in passive voice. Sometimes
    words “with, to, etc” may also be used before subject in passive voice.
    Examples.
    Active voice: The water fills the tub.
    Passive voice: The tub is filled with water.
    Active voice:  He knows me.
    Passive voice: I am known to him.
  5. Auxiliary
    verbs are used passive voice according to the tense of sentence.

PASSIVE VOICE FOR ALL TENSES RULES

  • The
    places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive
    voice.
  • 3rd
    form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive
    voice.
  • Auxiliary
    verbs for each tense are given below in the table.
Present
Simple Tense (passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am/is/are
Active
voice:

He sings a song.
He does not sing a song.Does he sing a song?

Passive
voice:

A song is
sung by him.
A song is not
sung by him.
Is a
song sung by him?

Present
Continuous Tense (passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am being/is being/are being
Active
voice:

I am writing a letter
I am not writing a letter.
Am I writing a letter?

Passive
voice:

A letter is being
written by me.
A letter is not
being
written by me.
Is a
letter being
written by me?

Present
Perfect Tense (passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: has been/have been
Active
voice:

She has finished his work
She has not finished her work.
Has she finished her work?

Passive
voice:

Her work has been
finished by her.
Her work has not
been
finished by her.
Has her
work been
finished by her?

Past
Simple Tense (passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was/were
Active
voice:

I killed a snake
I did not kill a snake.
Did I kill a snake?

Passive
voice:

A snake was
killed by me.
A snake was not
killed by me.
Was
a snake killed by me?

Past
Continuous Tense (Passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was being/were being
Active
voice:

He was driving a car.
He was not driving a car.
Was he driving a car?

Passive
voice:

A car was being
driven by him.
A car was not being
driven by him.
Was
a car being
driven by him?

Past
Perfect Tense (Passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: had been
Active
voice:

They had completed the assignment.
They had not completed the assignment.
Had they completed the assignment?

Passive
voice:

The assignment had
been
completed by them.
The assignment had
not been
complete by them.
Had
the assignment been
completed by them?

Future
Simple Tense (Passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will be
Active
voice:

She will buy a car.
She will not buy a car.
Will she buy a car?

Passive
voice:

A car will be
bought by her.
A car will not be
bought by her.
Will a
car be
bought by her?

Future
Perfect Tense (passive Voice)

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will have been
Active
voice:

You will have started the job.
You will have not started the job.
Will you have started the job?

Passive
voice:

The job will have
been
started by you.
The job will not
have been
started by you.
Will the
job have been
started by you?

Note: The following tenses cannot be changed into passive
voice.

  1. Present
    perfect continuous tense
  2. Past
    perfect continuous tense
  3. Future
    continuous tense
  4. Future
    perfect continuous tense
  5. Sentence
    having Intransitive verbs 

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals
“CAN, MAY, MIGHT,
SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT TO”

  • The
    places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive
    voice.
  • 3rd
    form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive
    voice.
  • To
    change sentences having present/future modal into passive voice, auxiliary
    verb “be” is added after modal in sentence.

                            
Passive voice for Present/Future Modals

                             “CAN,
MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT TO”

Auxiliary
verb in passive voice: be

Active
voice: CAN

She can play a violin.
She cannot play a violin.
Can she play a violin?

Passive
voice: CAN BE

A violin can be played by her.
A violin cannot be played by her.
Can a violin be played by her?

Active
voice: MAY

I may buy the computer.
I may not buy the computer.
May I buy the computer?

Active
voice: MAY BE

The computer may be bought by me.
The computer may not be bought by me.
May the computer be bought by me?

Active
voice: MIGHT

Guests might play chess.
Guests might not play chess.

Active
voice: MIGHT BE

Chess might be played by guests.
Chess might not be played guests.

Active
voice: SHOULD

Students should study all lessons.
Students should not study all lessons.
Should students study all lessons?

Active
voice: SHOULD BE

All lessons should be studied by students.
All lessons should not be studied by students.
Should all lessons be studied by students?

Active
voice: MUST

You must learn the test-taking strategies.
You must not learn the test-taking strategies.

Active
voice: MUST BE

Test-taking strategies must be learnt by you.
Test-taking strategies must not be learned by you.

Active
voice: OUGHT TO

They ought to take the examination.

Active
voice: OUGHT TO BE

The examination ought to be taken by them.

Passive voice for Past Modals
“MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE,
SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE”

  • The
    places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive
    voice.
  • 3rd
    form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive
    voice.
  • To
    change sentences having past modal into passive voice, auxiliary verb
    “been” is added after modal in sentence.

                         
Passive voice for Present/Future Modals

 “MAY HAVE,
MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT HAVE TO”

Auxiliary
verb in passive voice: been

Active
voice: MAY HAVE

You may have availed the opportunity.
You may not have availed the opportunity.

Active
voice: MAY HAVE BEEN

The opportunity may have been availed by you.
The opportunity may not have been availed by you.

Active
voice: MIGHT HAVE

He might have eaten meal.
He might not have eaten meal.

Active
voice: MIGHT HAVE BEEN

Meal might have been eaten by him.
Meal might not have been eaten by him.

Active
voice: SHOULD HAVE

You should have studied the book.
You should not have studied the book.

Active
voice: SHOULD HAVE BEEN

The book should have been studied by you.
The book should have not been studied by you.

Active
voice: MUST HAVE

He must have started job.
He must not have started job.

Active
voice: MUST HAVE BEEN

Job must have been started by you.
Job must not have been started by you.

Active
voice: OUGHT TO HAVE

You ought to have helped him.

Active
voice: OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN

He
ought to have been helped by you

Passive voice of imperative sentences

                             
(command and request)

A sentence
which expresses command or request or advice is called imperative sentence.

For example,

      Open the door.
      Turn off the television.
       Learn your lesson.

For changing these sentences in to passive voice, auxiliary verb “be” is used.
The word “Let” is added before sentence in passive voice. Auxiliary verb “be”
is added after object in sentence in passive voice. Main verb (base form) of
imperative sentence is changed to 3rd form of verb (past participle) in passive
voice. For best understand read the following examples.

Examples 

Passive
voice of “Imperative Sentences”

Active
Voice

Passive
Voice

Open the
door.

Let the door be opened.

Complete
the work.

Let the worked be completed.

Turn off
the television.

Let the television be tuned off.

Learn
your lesson.

Let your lesson be learnt.

Kill the
snake.

Let the snake be killed.

Punish
him.

Let him be punished.

Speak
the truth.

Let the truth be spoken.

Help the
poor.

Let the poor be helped.

Revise
your book.

Let your book be revised.

Clean your room.
Let
your room be
cleaned.

Sentences which cannot be changed into passive voice

Transitive and intransitive verb

A verb can
be either transitive or intransitive. A transitive verb needs an object (in
sentence) to give complete meaning while intransitive verb does need an object
(in sentence) to give complete meaning. 
For example,

Transitive verb.
      He sent a letter.
  (Send is a transitive verb and it needs an object i.e. letter to express
full meaning.)

Intransitive Verb.

       He laughs.
      (Laugh is an intransitive verb and it does not
need object for expressing full meaning.)
    e.g. Sleep, go, reach, sit, die, are examples of
intransitive verbs.

Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive voice

The
sentences having intransitive verbs (belonging to any tense) cannot be changed
into passive voice. The reason is that there is not any object in such
sentences and without object of sentence passive voice is not possible.

A sentence can be changed into passive voice if it has subject and object.
Sometimes subject may not be written in passive voice but it does not mean that
it has no subject. Such sentences have subject but the subject is so common or
familiar or known that if even it is not written in passive voice, it gives
full meaning.
For example
Cloth is sold in
yards.   

The
following tenses can also not be changed into passive voice.

  1. Present
    perfect continuous tense
  2. Past
    perfect continuous tense
  3. Future
    continuous tense
  4. Future
    perfect continuous tense

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