Q. What is an Electric circuit?

A. An

electric circuit is an inter connection of electrical elements.

###
Q. What do you mean by

independent and dependent sources?

A. An

ideal independent source is an active element that provides a specified voltage

or current that is completely independent of other circuit variables where as

an ideal dependent source is an active element in which the source quantity is

controlled by another voltage or current.

###
Q. What are the types of

dependent sources?

A.1.Voltage

controlled voltage source

2. Current

controlled voltage source

3. Voltage

controlled current source

4. Current

controlled current source

### Q. Explain ohm’s law?

A. At

constant temperature, current flowing through an element is directly proportional

to the potential difference across it.

###
Q. What is open circuit and short

circuit?

A. An open

circuit is a circuit element approaching infinite resistance and short circuit

is a circuit element with resistance approaching zero.

### Q. Define a branch, node, loop and mesh?

A. Branch:

It represents a single element such as voltage source or resistor.

Node: A

node is the point of connection between two or more branches

Loop: A

loop is any closed path in a circuit

Mesh: A

mesh is a loop which does not contain any other loops in it.

### Q. State kirchhoff’s laws?

A. Kirchhoff’s

current law: It states that algebraic sum of currents entering a node is zero.

i.e Sum of

currents entering a node=sum of currents leaving it.

Kirchhoff’s

voltage law: It states that algebraic sum of voltages around a closed path or

loop is zero.

i.e sum of

voltage drops=sum of voltage rises.

###
Q. What is super node and super

mesh?

A. A super

node is formed by enclosing a voltage source between two non-reference nodes

and any elements connected parallel with it. A super mesh results when two

meshes have a current source in common.

###
Q. Mesh analysis vs Nodal

analysis?

A. Mesh

analysis is more useful when there are many series elements, voltage sources

and we have to find out branch or mesh currents.

Nodal

analysis is better if there are many parallel connected elements, current

sources and we have to find node voltages.

###
Q. Explain superposition

principle?

A. The

superposition principle states that the voltage across (or current through) an

element in a linear circuit is the algebraic sum of voltages across (or

currents through) that element due to independent sources acting alone.

###
Q. What is meant by source

transformation?

A. A

source transformation is the process of replacing a voltage source Vs.

in series with a resistor R by a current source is in parallel with

a resistor R, or vice versa.

### Q. State thevenin’s theorem?

A.

Thevenin’s theorem states that a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by

an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source VTH in series

with a resistor RTH where VTH is open circuit voltage at

the terminals and RTH is the input or equivalent resistance at the

terminals when the independent sources are turned off.

### Q. State Norton’s theorem?

A.

Norton’s theorem states that a linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by

an equivalent circuit consisting of a current source IN in parallel

with a resistor RN where IN is short circuit current

through the terminals and RN is the input or equivalent resistance

at the terminals when the independent sources are turned off.

###
Q. State maximum power transfer

theorem?

A. Maximum

power is transferred to the load when load resistance equals thevenin

resistance as seen from the load.

###
Q. Explain the behavior of

capacitor and inductor to D.C?

A. A

capacitor acts as an open circuit to D.C

We know

that Q=CV

i=dQ/dt

i=CdV/dt

dV/dt is

zero in case of D.C supply. So current is zero which implies it acts as an open

circuit.

An

inductor acts as a short circuit to D.C

We know

that V=Ldi/dt

di/dt=0 in

case of D.C supply. So, voltage across inductor is zero which implies it acts

as a short circuit.

###
Q. What are different parameters

used to represent two port networks?

A.A two

port network can be modeled using six parameters

Impedance

(Z),Admittance (Y),Hybrid (h),Inverse hybrid (g),Transmission (T) and Inverse

transmission (t) parameters.