MEDIEVAL INDIA REVIEW
● Made in the times of Bhoj, an idol of ‘Vakdevi’ is at present preserved in the British Museum.
● The Jain temples of Dilwara were constructed during the period of Parmars.
● In Udaipur Prashasti, Munj is entitled ‘Kavi Vrish’ due to his literary attainments.
● Qutubuddin was purchased as a slave in his childhood by Qazi Fakruddin Abdul Aziz Koofi.
● Qutubuddin did not issue coins or got ‘Khutba’ read in his name after accession to Delhi throne.
● Qutubuddin Aibak was buried at Lahore after his death.
● Iltutmish established the Shamsi dynasty.
● Iltutmish organized the group of his 40 slaves which is famous in history as Turkan-i-Chahalgami.
● Yalduz and Nasiruddin Qubacha were prominent rivals of Iltutmish.
● Iltutmish organized the ‘Iqta army’.
● Iltutmish issued the coins—‘Taka’ of silver and ‘Jeetal’ of copper.
● Iltutmish was the first Sultan who issued pure Arabic coins.

On 18th February, 1229, the representatives of the Caliph of Baghdad
came to Delhi and they gave the Investiture of the Caliph to Iltutmish.
The Caliph thus accepted him as the Sultan of Delhi. Now Delhi became a
free state legitimately.
● According to Barni, Balban organized his Court on the Iranian pattern.
● Balban started the system of ‘Sijda’ and ‘Paibos’ during his reign.

Balban’s theory of kingship was based upon—Power, Prestige and Justice.
His main objective was to maintain his control upon the administrative
● The Mongol leader Changez Khan was known as the ‘Curse of God’.
● The coronation of Jalaluddin Feroz Shah was done in 1290 at the Kilokhari Apurna Palace built by Kaikubad.

At the time of his accession on the Delhi Sultanate, Alauddin Khalji
assumed the title of Abul Mujaffar Sultan Alauddinia and Deen Mohammad
Shah Khalji.
● Jalaluddin Feroz Shah Khalji granted to Alauddin Khalji, the post of Amir-i-Tujuk.
● During Alauddin’s time approximately 75 to 80 per cent of the peasant’s produce was charged as tax.

The main tasks of Diwan-i-Ariz were to recruit the soldiers, to
disburse the salary, to well equip the army, to make arrangements for
inspection and to proceed with the Commander-in-Chief in times of war.

The main tasks of the Diwan-i-Insha was to draft royal orders and
letters and to maintain the govt. records. He also conducted
correspondence with the local officers.
● Alauddin Khalji introduced market reforms and fixed the prices of various items and goods.
● Munhiyan or detectives were appointed to keep a watch over the market and report the Sultan of the same.
● Barid-i-Mandi was an employee who informed the Sultan of the quality of the material sold in the market.

‘Khams’ was the war booty. The 4/5 of the loot was submitted to the
royal treasury. Only 1/5 was distributed among the soldiers.

Alauddin Khalji established a new department Diwan-i-Mustakharaj in
order to check the corruption of Revenue department and to maintain
control on the concerned officers.
● Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah rejected the rigid rules of Alauddin Khalji and pursued the policy of forgive and forget.
● Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Ghazi was a Qaruna turk.
● Mohammad Tughlaq has been called, an unfortunate idealist

Due to shortage of money in the treasury and to meet the expenses of
Imperialist policy, Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq issued token currency.
● Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq planned invasion of Khurasan and Iraq but did not carry it out.
● Diwan-i-Kohi was the name of agriculture department organized by Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.
● Elphinston was the first historian who believed that there was some signs of madness in Mohammad Tughlaq.
● Feroz Shah abolished 24 taxes disliked by people.
● Feroz Shah Tughlaq following dictum of Quran. levied only 4 taxes named Kharaj, Khums, Zazia and Zakat.
● Feroz Shah brought the two Asokan pillars from Khijrabad and Meerut to Delhi.
● During the period of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, the two books Fatwa-i-Jahandari and Tarikh-i-Feroz Shahi were written by Barni.
● Feroz Shah Tughlaq wrote his autobiography entitled Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi.
● Feroz Shah Tughlaq established a new department of charity at Delhi known as Diwan-i-Khairat.
● Feroz Shah’s book ‘Dalayat-i-Feroz Shahi’ was a work translated into Persian.
● Taimur invaded India in 1398.
● Sikandar Lodhi was the greatest of the Lodhi kings.
● In the Sultanate period, the Wazir was the Prime Minister of the Sultan.
● The department of the Wazir was known as the Diwan-i-Wizarat.
● In the Sultanate period, the Mushrif-i-Mumaliq maintained the account of the income and expenditure of the provinces.

In the Sultanate period, the Chief Auditor of Accounts was called
Mustafa-i-Mamaliq. His main work was to inspect the accounts prepared by
● The Chief of military department was called, Ariz-i-Mamaliq who was not the Commander-in-Chief of the army.
● Dabir-i-Khas was the chairman of the correspondence department.
● Department of Diwan-i-Insha worked under Dabir-i-Khas who issued the royal Firmans (orders).
● The Treasurer was called Khajij and the Chief Justice was called Qazi-i-Mamaliq.
● The Chief of the Construction department was called Mir-i-Imarat.
● The Public Hall of the Sultan was called Durbar-i-Azam.
● The Sultan divided the empire into Iqtas orprovinces.
● Iqta was divided into samll shiks or districts.
● Jakat was the tax which covered the taxes of ‘Sadpa’ and ‘Tith’.
● Qutubuddin Aibak had built the mosque known as Quwwattul-Islam near the Delhi Fort of Rai Pithora.
● The famous mosque at Ajmer known as Dhai Din Ka Jhopra was constructed by Qutubuddin Aibak.
● Dhai Din Ka Jhopra was earlier a Sanskrit school which was built by Vigrahraj Bisaldeo.
● Alai Darwaza which is considered to be the most precious jewel of Islamic architecture was built by Alauddin Khalji.
● The new city of Siri and the Hazaar Situn palace in this city were built by Alauddin Khalji.
● In the period of Sikander Lodhi, his Wazir built the Moth mosque.
● The mosque of Attala is one of the best buildings of Sharqi style.
● The Jhajhanri mosque at Jaunpur was built by Ibrahim Sharqi in about 1430.
● The most important mosque at Jaunpur known as Jami mosque was built by Hussain Shah Sharqi.
● The mosque of Lal Darwaza at Jaunpur, was built in the middle of the 15th century.
● The Vijay Nagar kingdom was divided into 6 provinces. The chief of the province was known as Prantpati or Nayak.
● The province was divided into Nadu or districts.
● The provincial rulers were allowed to issue their coins.
● In the Vijay Nagar empire Brahmans were the most respected. The criminal Brahman was exempled from capital punishment.
● Women enjoyed honourable status. Many of them learnt the art of warfare. They were appointed as bodyguards.
● Krishnadeo Ray is designated as the Andhra Pitamah.
● Gold coins were used and they were called ‘Barah’.
● Mixed metal coins were called Partab.
● Kabir who adopted the Gyanashrayi branch of the Nirgun sect, was the disciple of Ramanand.
● Namdeo was born in a small village of Satara district in 1220.
● Sabad refer to the composition related to Yog Sadhana.
● Guru Nanak was born in a small village Talwandi near Lahor.
● To reform a society ridden with ritualism and superstitious, he preached the Nirguna sect.
● The fifth Sikh Guru Arjundeo systematized the composition of Guru Nanak in ‘Guru Granth Sahib’.
● Malik Mohammad Jayasi earned great name and fame for his work Padmavat.

The first invasion of Babar on India was conducted in 1519. During this
invasion, he conquered Bajaur and Bhera. He went back from here. When
he left these two places were lost to the Moghuls.
● Babar again invaded India in 1526, for the fifth time and he did not go back this time. He founded the Moghul empire in India.
● He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi by adopting his trusted war tactics of Tulughma.
● Babar used Artillery for the first time in the battle of Panipat.

Babar defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in the battle of Khanva in 1527. He
scored a victory over Afghans in battle of ‘Ghaghara’ in 1529.
● Babar declared the Chanderi war as Jehad and he constructed a minarate of the heads of the dead Rajputs.
● Babar wrote his autobiography Tujuk-i-Babri in Turkish language.
● Mirza Haider Speaks about numerous qualities of Babar in his book—Tarikh-i-Rashidi.
● Babar’s daughter Gulbadan Begum enumerated the qualities of Babar in her book, Humayun Nama.
● Babar in his reign abolished the tax Tamagha.
● Babar wrote Risala-i-Validiya in Turkish poetry which was orginally the work of Khwaja Obei-dullah.
● Babar learnt the use of artillery from Ustad Ali and Mustafa—his two Turkish officers.
● The name of Humayun’s mother was Maham Sultana.
● In 1544 Humayun took shelter with Shah Tahmasp, the ruler of Iran.
● In July 1555, Humayun again occupied the throne of Delhi.
● Humayun died on 27 January, 1556 as a result of a sudden fall from the stairs of the Din-Panah Library.
● Shershah was a great conqueror. He fought and won a grim battle against Maldeo of Marwar.

Shershah introduced currency reform, extanded transport system by
building, roads, most famous being present day G. T. Road and reformed
revenue system by classifying agricultural land and introducing
measurement of land.
● During the administration of Shershah, the
Diwan-i-Vizarat looked after the tax system and economy and maintained
the accounts of the income and expenditure of the State.
● The duty of Diwan-i-Ariz was to recruit the army, supply the food and look after education.
● The duty of Diwan-i-Rasalat was to conduct correspondence with other States and to maintain contact with them.
● The duty of the Diwan-i-Insha was to write emperor’s orders and records of accounts.
● The credit to solve the early difficulties of Akbar and to safeguard the Mughal empire goes to Bairam Khan.
● From 1556 to 1560 the reins of Mughal administration remained in the hands to Bairam Khan.
● At Tilwara, a war was fought between Bairam Khan and the army of Akbar. Bairam Khan was defeated.

In early days of his rule Akbar was under the influence of Harem
particularly his foster another Maham Anga. This is why some historian
call the early years of Akbar as ‘Purda-rule’ or Petticoat government.
● When Maham Anga died, the so-called short Petticoat government of Akbar’s time ended.
● In 1562 Akbar abolished the slavery system.
● Akbar was the first muslim ruler who got maximum success in Rajasthan.

Akbar’s second attack on Gujarat is considered to be not only the
fastest invasion of Akbar’s time but the fastest in the history of the
world of that age.
● In 1595 during Akbar’s time. Muzaffar Hussain was the Persian Governor of Qandahar.
● Akbar’s mother Hamida Bano Begum was a religious lady of a Sufi Shia family.
● Raja Birbal died fighting on the royal side in the Afghan-Baluchi rebellion during Akbar’s time.
● In 1571 was built an Ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri where every Thrusday, religious deliberation were held.

Akbar was also impressed by Jainism. He invited the eminent Jain
scholar Heer Vijay Suri from Tam Gachh in Gujarat to know about this
● Impressed by Zorastrianism, the holy fire was kept burning in Akbar’s palace.
● Following the tradition of Hindu kings, Akbar started appearing for Darshan of his people from the Jharokha of his palace.
● In Akbar’s time, the Prime Minister was known Wazir or Vakil-i-Mutlaq.
● In Akbar’s time, the Finance Minister was called Wazir or Deewan.
● Mujaffar Khan was the first to be appointed as Wazir during Akbar’s time.
● The assistants of Deewan, known as Sahib-i-Taujeeh looked after the accounts of the Army.
● Another assistant of Deewan, Deewan-i-Bayutoot, looked after the Industries of different kinds.
● The officer who managed the royal treasury was known as Mushrif-i-Khazana.
● Meer Saman in Akbar’s time, managed the affairs of the royal palace, Haram and kitchen.
● In Akbar’s time, Amal Guzar was the officer who collected the revenue from the districts.

Bitikchi prepared the data about the quality of land and its produce.
On the same basis, the Amal Guzar fixed the revenue. Bitikchi was the
second important officer in the Revenue department.
● Amil collected the revenue from the Pargana.

In Akbar’s time, the clerk was called Karkun. His main task was to
record the cultivable land in the Pargana and keep an account of the
realized and unrealized revenue.
● Akabar introduced Mansabdari system with its ranks of Jat and Sawar based on decimal system.
● According to Blochman, Zat was the definite number of soldiers, the Mansabdars had to keep with them.
● According to Blochman the Sawar meant the definite number of cavalry.
● In Akbar’s time, there were four kinds of land—Polaj, Chacher, Parauti and Banjar.
● In Akbar’s time, Ibrahim Sarhindi translated the Sanskrit text of Atharva Ved in Persian.
● Mulla Shah Mohammad translated in Persian Raj Tarangini of Kalhan.
● Maulana Sherry translated Hari Vansh Puran in Persian.
● Abul Fazal translated Panch Tantra in Persian.
● Faizi translated the story of Nal Damayanti in Persian.
● The history of Islam was compiled in Tarikh-i-Alfi. It is a famous book.

Akbar established a separate department of Painting, the chairman of
this department was the famous painter Khwaja Abdus Samad.

Abdussamad was an inhabitant of Persia who came to India from Shiraz. He
was adorned with the title of Shirin Qalam for his attainments.
● Mohammad Hussain, the famous author of Akbar’s Court was adorned with the title of Zari Qalam.
● Akbar built the Fort of Allahabad.
● The first building of Akbar’s time was Humayun’s tomb at Delhi built under the guidance of his step mother Haji Begum.
● The main mason who built Humayun’s tomb belonged to Iran and his name was Mirza Meerak Ghyas.
● Akbar was born on Sunday. Hence Jahangir declared Sunday as a pious day.
● Nur Jahan was an educated lady. She was specially interested in music, painting and poetry. She composed poetry in Persian.
● The first Englishman to come to the Mughal Court was captain Hawkins.
● Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khana was the guardian and tutor of Jahangir.
● The English ambassador Sir Thomas Roe came to India during Jahangir’s time.
● The Jahangir’s autobiography is Tujuk-i-Jahangiri.
● Shahjahan was born on 5 January, 1592 at Lahore. The name of his mother was Jagat Gosain.

Two big rebellions broke out during Shahjahan’s time. One was the
revolt of the ruler of Bundelkhand named Jujhar Singh and the other was
the revolt in south under the leadership of Khan-i-Jahan Lodhi.
● The title of Malika-i-Zamani was conferred upon Arjumand Bano Begum.
● The first coronation of Aurangzeb was performed on 31 July, 1658 and the second coronation took place on 15 June, 1659.
● Aurangzeb passed an order and prohibited the repairs of the temples by the Hindus.
● Aurangzeb appointed Subedars and Muhatsibs to check the spread of education and Hinduism.
● Aurangzeb again levied Zazia upon Hindus.
● Under Aurangzeb, the Hindu traders paid 5% tax on goods while the Muslim traders were free from this tax.
● Aurangzeb issued orders to prohibit the celebration of Holi, Diwali and Basant etc. in the Mughal Court.

Gokul and Raja Ram were the leaders of Jat revolt against Aurangzeb.
After the death of Rajaram, his brother’s son named Churaman continued
the revolt. The Jat rebellion went on till the death of Aurangzeb and
the Jats succeeded in establishing a free Jat state of Bharatpur near
● In 1681, Akbar, the son of Aurangzeb revolted against him.

The 9th Guru of the Sikh order, Guru Tegh Bahadur openly protested
against the religious policy of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb called him to Delhi
and asked him to accept Islam. When he refused, he was beheaded.

Shivaji was the founder of Maratha State. He fought against the state of
Deccan, as well as the mughal empire. He was a great administrator.
● Shivaji was succeeded by Sambhaji who was captured and put to death by Aurangzeb.

Rajaram ruled only as the representative of Shahu—the son of Shambhaji
who was imprisoned by Aurangzeb. Rajaram never occupied the Maratha
● After the death of Raja Ram Maratha war of independence was carried on by his wife Tarabai.

VascodeGama came to India as the representative of the ruler of
Portugal. He met Zamorin of Calicut and obtained trade facilities.
● In 1492 Pope Alexander VI granted the Portuguese the monopoly to trade with the east.
● From 1505 to 1509, Almeda remained in India as the first Portuguese Governor.

Albukirk was the successor of Almeda in India. His objective was to
establish a Portuguese colony in India by intermarrying with Indians.

After coming to India, the Dutch established their trade centres at
Surat, Bharaunch, Cambay, Ahmedabad, Chinsura, Kasim Bazar, Patna,
Balasore, Nagapattanam, Kochin, Masulipattanam and Agra.
● The main
aim of the Dutch was to trade with the Islands of south-east Asia. India
was just a passage for them. This is why the Dutch faced no rivalry
with other European companies.
● In 1608, under the leadership of Captain Hawkins, the English fleet reached India.
● In 1717 the Mughal King Farrukh Siyar granted a Firman to the British giving them the trade rights.
● In 1692, the Nawab of Bengal issued an order to the French Company and they established a commercial Factory at Chandranagar.

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