ANCIENT INDIA REVIEW
● The Harappan Fort in the shape of a parallel square is 460 yards in
length (north-south) 215 yards in breadth (east-west) and 15-17 yards in

● The script of Indus civilization was pictorial in which there were more than 600 picture-letters and 60 original letters.

● The excavations of Chanhudaro were carried out in 1925 under the leadership of Earnest M’ckay. This town had no fort.

● Naal, Daburkot, Rakhi Garhi, Banawali, Rangpur, Lothal, Des Morasi,
Kulli, Rana Ghundai, Anjira, Gumla, Amri, Ghundai, Mundigak, Diplabaga,
Sahar-i-Sokhta, Bampur and Queta etc. are famous historical sites where
the remains of Indus civilization and pre Indus civilization have been

● Daburkot, Periano, Ghundai, Kulli, Mehi, Chanhudaro, Amri,
Lohumjodaro, Alimurad, Ropar, Rangpur, Sutkegender are the prominent
(spots) places of Indus Valley civilization.

● The excavations of Kalibangan, a historical place in Rajasthan began
in 1961 under the direction of B. K. Thapar and B. B. Lal. From the
lower layer of the excavation, the remains of pre Indus civilization and
from the upper layer of the Indus civilization are discernible. The
fortress and the city both were surrounded with walls.

● The excavations at Rangpur—an Indus site in Gujarat were carried out
in 1953-54 under the leadership of Rangnath Rao. Forts of raw bricks,
drainage, terrecota utensils, weights and slabs of stone have been found
but the idol of mother Goddess (Matridevi) and coins have not been

● Lothal was situated at that time near the ocean. In excavations the
remains of a dockyard have been found which testify to the trade
relations of Indus people with western Asia.

● In the district of Kutchh in Gujarat state, 12 kms north-east of
Adesar is situated Surkotda which was explored and excavated in 1964
under the guidance of Jagatpati Joshi.

● In the excavation of Indus civilization, a very big building has been
explored. It is 242 ft long and 112 ft broad. The walls are 5 ft thick.

● Some figurines on tables have been found in Indus civilization in the
centre of which is a round shaped Sun and around it are the pictures of 6
gods arranged in a way that they appear as if they are the Sun beams.
This testifies to the worship of Sun in the period.

● The proof of the existence of a Man-like being are 1 crore to 20 lacs years old.

● In the Indian population, there are four basic racial sub-difference.
These are Negrito, Astro Australians, Kakeshisi and Mongoloids.

● In India, skeletons (human body in bones-kankal) have been found in
Sarai Nahar Rai near Allahabad, Bataikhor and Lekhania. High in length,
flat nose and broad mouth are their characteristics. These belong to
Mesolithic age.

● The pre stone civiliation came to be knwon in the region of river
Sohan a subsidiary of Sindhu. Hence it is called Sohan civilization. The
Vatikapoom in the form of (Gandasa) axe and Khandak were its main

● In Harappan culture, the worship of Earth as goddess was in vogue.
This is indicated by the idol of a woman with a plant growing out of her

● Along with the Elephants, Rhinoceros, Buffalos, Lions and Deers, the
picture of Yogi engraved on a seal (Muhar) suggests the worship of Shiva
in Harappan civilization. This god had three heads and he sat with
crossed legs.

● The Talismans obtained in large numbers indicate that the people of
Harappan culture believed in witchcraft or the dead souls. These
talismans were made of bronze and copper in the form of plate.

● In Harappan culture the weight (for measuring) were 16 or of its multiplied numbers.

● The dogs and cats were the domesticated animals and their foot prints confirm this fact.

● The remains of the horses have been found at Surkotda. The existence
of the horse is not known from the upper layer of Mohanjodaro
excavation. The terrecota small figurines provide knowledge about it.

● The people of Lothal used rice in 1800 B.C.

● As Sindh was one of the oldest region for cultivating cotton, the Greeks named it as Sedon.

● In Harappan culture, silver was obtained from Afghanistan, Iran, South
India, Arabia and Baluchistan. Gold was imported from Afghanistan and

● The stone Lajward was brought from Badakshan, Feroza was brought from
Iran. Jayumani was brought from Maharashtra, Moonga and redstone were
brought from Saurashtra and Western India and the precious greenstone
(Panna) was brought from Central Asia.

● The Ahar culture (Rajasthan) belonged to the Copper age. The houses
were built of stone and a mixture of lime and soil. Paddy was cultivated
and Metal Work in Bronze were in vogue. All these were the
characteristics of this culture which existed about 2000 B.C.

● The remains of Malwa stone and Bronze culture have been found in
Navdatoli where the houses were built of mud, bamboo and dry grass in a
square and round shape. The terrecota utensils and agricultural products
of wheat, oil seeds, pulses (Masur) and green and black gram are the
characteristics of this culture.

● The Rishis (Sages) like Gritsamad, Vishwamitra, Bhardwaj, Atri and Vashishta composed the Suktas or the Vedic Mantras.

● The prominent female sages were Lopamudra, Ghosa, Shachi and Poulomi.

● Sam Ved is divided into three branches—(1) Kouthum, (2) Ranayaniya, (3) Jaminiya.

● Prominent among the Ayurvedacharyas were Acharya Ashwini Kumar,
Dhanvantari, Banabhatt, Sushrut, Madhav, Jeevan and Lolimbaraja etc.

● Ayur Ved is an ‘Upaved’ of Rig Ved, Dhanur Ved is ‘Upaved’ of Yajur
Ved, Gandharva Ved is the ‘Upaved’ of Sam Ved and Shilpa Ved is the
‘Upaved’ of Atharva Ved.
● Rig Ved has two Brahmans—(1) Aitereya, (2) Kaushitaki.
● Krishna Yajur Ved has the Brahman—Taitteriya and Shukla Yajur Ved has the Shatpath Brahman.
● The Brahmans of Sam Ved are Tandav, Panchvish, Sadvish and Chhandogya.
● The Aranyakas deal with life, death and other serious themes. These are written and studied in loneliness of the forests.
● Aitereya and Kaushitaki are the Aranyakas of Rig Ved. The author of Aitereya was Mahidas Aitereya.
● Taitteriya Aranyaka belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda.
● Sam Ved and Atharav Ved have no Aranyakas.
● Prominent among the Upanishads are Ish, Ken, Kath, Prashn, Mundak,
Mandukya, Taitteriya, Aitereya, Chhandogya, Vrihadaranyak, Shwetashwara,
Kaushitaki and Mahanarayana.
● During the Rigvedic period Nishk was an ornament for the neck;
Karnashobhan was an ornament for the ear and Kumbh was the ornament for
the head.

● In the Rigvedic age, the Aryans domesticated the cow, the buffalo, goat (ajaa), horse, elephant and camel etc.
● Bheeshaj was the person who treated the sick people.
● The Rigvedic Aryans worshipped the Sun as Savita, Mitra, Pooshan and
Vishnu. Sun was called the ‘Eye of Gods’; and Agni the ‘Mouth of Gods’.
Agni was considered to be the Purohit of the Aryans. They thought that
the offering of the Yajna reaches to the gods through Agni. Varun was
worshipped as a spatial god.

● In Rig Veda, Usha, Sita, Prithvi, Aranyani, Ratri, Vak are worshipped as goddesses.

● Besides Rig Ved, the reference of Sita as the goddess of agriculture is made in Gomil Grihya Sutra and Paraskar Grihya Sutra.

● The ancient idols of Ganesh show his main weapons as Paash and Ankush.

● In the Rigvedic age the traders were called ‘Pani’. They stole away the cattle of the Aryans.

● Das’ or Dasyas were more hated than the ‘Pani’. They have been
referred as black complexioned inauspicious and opposed to Yajnas. They
were the worshippers of Phallus (Shishnadev).

● In the Rigvedic age, the cow was the backbone of economy. It was
called ‘Aghanya’—not to be killed, war has been referred as Gavisthi,
the guest as Mohan and the daughter as Duhiti. One Rik refers to the
domestication of sheep.

● Vashishtha who replaced Vishwamitra as Purohit of King Sudas, has been
mentioned as adopted son of Urvashi, and born of the ‘Virya’ of Mitra
and Varun on an earthen pot.

● Ballabh and Tarukshadas were chieftains who lavishly donated to the
Purohits and through their grace obtained respect and high place in the
Aryan society.

● Savitri is referred in the famous Gayatri Mantra. In Rig Ved the
maximum reference is made of Indra. After him Varun is referred to. In
the earlier Richas Varun and Marut have been mentioned as ‘Gan’. Twasta
also was a Vedic God.

● Prajapati has been referred as the Adi Purush—the first human (male). The gods were his children.

● In Rig Ved, the king has been mentioned as the Protector of the clan
or the Gopta Janasya. The reference to Sabha, Samiti, Gan, Vidath is
made as the Tribal Councils.

● No bureaucracy developed in Rigvedic age. Yet the officer of Gochar
land were called Vrajpati, the officer of the village was called
Gramani. He was the commander. The chief of the family is referred as

● The words like Vrat, Gan, Gram and Shardh have also been used for indicating the group of Soldiers.

● In Rig Ved Jan is used 275 times, Vish is used 170 times. Sangram is the word which indicates war between the villages.

● The God of Vegetation. It was also an intoxicating drink and the method of its preparation is referred in the Rig Ved.

● The later Vedic literature was written during 1100 to 600 B.C. The
painted grey ware—bowls and plates were used and the tools which they
used were made of iron.
● The main crop of the later Vedic age was wheat and paddy instead of barley.
● In the later Vedic age, the Vidath were extinct but the Sabha and the Samiti existed.
● In this period, the King performed the rites of Rajsuya Yajna with a
desire to obtain divine power, Ashwamedha Yajna to expand the empire and
the Vajpeya Yajna for chariot racing with friends and relatives of his
● The Gotra system began in the later Vedic age. The custom of marrying outside the Gotra also started.
● In the literature of later Vedic age, the first three Ashrams are
mentioned—(1) Brahmcharya, (2) Grihastha, (3) Banprastha. The Sanyas
Ashram is not mentioned.
● In later Vedic period the plant Som could not be obtained easily. As such other drinks were also used.
● Gold and Silver were mainly used for making ornaments and utensils.
Other metals were used for making many other implements in the later
Vedic era.
● In later Vedic period, the commercial classes (Traders) organized
themselves in ‘Sangh’. The Aryans conducted sea trade. Nisk, Satman and
Krishal were usded as coins for trade purposes.
● In comparison to the religion of Rigvedic period, the later Vedic
religion had become very complex. Purohits, Yajna and sacrifice were
considered important. Many types of Yajnas were performed.
● The Shatpath Brahman refers to the various steps in progress of cultivation—Jutai (ploughing), Buwai
)planting), Lawani (weaning), Mandai (cutting) are the various processes mentioned in it.
● Sangam literature is compiled in 8 books. They are—(1) Narune, (2)
Kuruntoge, (3) Aigunuru, (4) Padirupyuttu, (5) Paripadal, (6)
Karlittorga, (7) Nedultoge, (8) Purnanuru.
● In the Sangam age, the Tamil Grammar was written in a detailed book, ‘Tolakappiyam’.
● With the songs of the musicians, the dancers known as Panar and Widelier used to dance.
● Pedinekilkanku is a famous composition of Sangam literature.
● Sangam is a Sanskrit word meaning a Congregation and a Council.
● The main theme of the Sangam literature is ‘Romance’ (Shringar) and
heroism (Veergatha). Shringar is called as ‘Aham’ and Veergatha has been
called as ‘Puram’.
● The first Sangam was organized at Madurai under the chairmanship of Rishi Agastya.
● The second Sangam was organized at Kapatpuram again under the chairmanship of Rishi Agastya.
● The third Sangam was organized at Madurai and it was chaired by ‘Nakkirar’.
● Avey was the family of Sangam age which meant Sabha (assembly).
● Panchvaram was the assembly of the advisors of the King of Sangam age.
● Ur was the institution which looked after the city administration.
● The excavation of Arikmedu, provide enough evidence to prove that once
opon a time, the cantonements of the Roman traders resided there.
● The teachers in the Sangam age were called as Kanakkaters.
● The students in the Sangam age were called Bhanwan or Pillai.
● Parshvanath arranged for fourfold vows (Chaturvrata) for the Bhikshus
(monks)—(1) I shall not kill the living beings, (2) I shall always speak
the truth, (3) I shall not steal, (4) I shall not keep any property.

● Mahavir Swami has been called Nigashtha, Naatputra and Nirgranth Saatputra.

● Mahavir Swami left his mortal frame and attained Nirvana at Pawapuri near Patna in Bihar.

● The Triratna in Jainism are described as Samyak Shraddha (veneration), Samyak Gyan (knowledge) and Samyak Acharana (conduct).

● According to Jainism, Nirvana (redemption) to free the soul from the physical bondage.

● Mahavir Swami has described five vows for the common people which are
called as Panchmaha-vrat. These are—Truth, Non-violence, No stealing, No
collection of wealth or anything and celibacy (Satya, Ahimsa, Astey,
Aparigrah and Brahamacharya). To these was later added, ‘Not to eat at

● Kaivalya is total knowledge which the Nirgranthget.

● Buddha was born in the Lumbini forest, 14 km beyond Kapilvastu in Nepal Tarai.

● Kaundinya, a Brahmin astrologer, was contemporary of Buddha.

● Gautam obtained knowledge at Gaya. Hence the place is called Bodh Gaya.

● The first sermon of Buddha is known as ‘Dharma Chakra Pravartan’.

● Mahatma Buddha delivered his first sermon at Rishipattan (Sarnath).

● The followers of Buddha were divided into four sections—(1) Bhikshu or
the monks, (2) Bhik-shuni or lady monks, (3) Upasaks or devotees, (4)
Upasikas or lady devotees.

● After delivering his teachings for constant 45 years, Mahatma Buddha
attained Mahaparinirvan at the age of 80 at Kushinara (Kushinagar).

● Tripitaks are—(1) Vinay Pitak, (2) Suttpitak, (3) Abhidhamma Pitak.

● Vinay Pitak is divided into 3 sections—(1) Sutta Vibhag, (2) Khandhak, (3) Pariwar.

● Suttpitak contains—Diggh Nikay, Majjhim Nikay, Anguttar Nikay and Khuddak Nikay.

● In Abhidhamma Pitak, philosophical and spiritual thoughts are contained.

● There are seven treatises of Abhidhamma Pitak —(1) Dhamma Sangeeti,
(2) Vibhang, (3) Dhatu Katha, (4) Puggal Panjati, (5) Katha Vastu, (6)
Yamak, (7) Patthan.

● The eightfold paths are—(1) Right belief, (2) Right thought, (3) Right
speech, (4) Right action, (5) Right means of livelihood, (6) Right
execution, (7) Right remembrance, (8) Right meditation.

● In Buddhism, the Astangikmarg (eight fold path) is classified as—(1) Praja Skandh, (2) Sheel Skandh, (3) Samadhi Skandh.

● Under Praja Skandh come—Samyak Drishti, Samyak Sankalp and Samyak Vani (speech).

● Under Sheel Skandh come—Samyak Karmant, Samyak Aajeev.

● Under Samadhi Skandh come—Samyak Vyayam, Samyak Smriti and Samyak Samadhi.

● Mahatma Buddha was silent on the existence of God or otherwise but he did not believe in the existence of soul.

● The first Buddhist Council was convened after a few years of Buddha’s
death under the chairmanship of Mahakassap in Saptparna caves near

● The second Buddhist Council was organized at Vaisali.

● The third Buddhist Council was convened at Patliputra during the regime of Asoka.

● The fourth Buddhist Council was convened at Kashmir during the regime of Kanishka.

● Purans are said to be 18 in number of which Bhagwat Puran is very renowned.

● Bhagwatism is mentioned for the first time in the Bhishm Parva of Mahabarat.

● The Dravida Vaishnav devotees are known as the Alwars.

● A Brahman named Kautilya or Chanakya played a significant role in the establishment of the Mauryan empire.

● In the Greek writings, Chandra Gupta Maurya is called Sandrocottus.

● Arien and Plutarch have called him Androcottus.

● In the Mudra Rakshas written by Vishakhdutt, Chandra Gupta Maurya is called Chandragiri Chandrashree.

● In Buddhist literature, Mahavansh Tika is the book which throws ample light on the life of Chandra Gupta Maurya.

● ‘Indika’ was written by Megasthenese.

● In the book Mahavansh, Chandra Gupta Maurya is said to be Kshatriya by caste.

● After being defeated in war with Chandra Gupta, Selukose offered him
Gadrosia (Baluchistan), Acrosia (Kandahar), Aria (Herat) and a part of
● Sudarshan Lake at Junagarh was built by Chandra Gupta Maurya.

● The Mahasthan inscription points out Chandra Gupta’s ascendancy over Bengal.

● The Rudradaman inscription of Girnar testifies to the suzerainty of Chandra Gupta over Saurashtra.

● According to Jain Texts, Chandra Gupta in the last years of his life,
accepted Jainism and went to Mysore with the Jain monk Bhadrabahu.

● The empire of Chandra Gupta spread from Himalaya in the north to
Mysore in the south; and from Bengal in the east to Baluchistan in the
west. It covered Punjab, Sindh, Kashmir, Doab of Ganga and Yamuna,
Magadh, Bengal, Malwa, Saurashtra and the region of Mysore.
● The administrative system of Chandra Gupta Maurya was Monarchy. In
order to administer well, Chandra Gupta Maurya appointed a Council of
● In the Mauryan age, the officer who collected the trade taxes was called Shulkadhyaksha.
● The Chairman of the Government services was known as Sutradhyaksha in the Mauryan age.
● The officer-in-charge of Weight and Measures was known as Peetadhyaksha in the Mauryan age.
● In Mauryan age, the officer who controlled the manufacture of wine,
its sale and purchase and its consumption was Suradhyaksha.
● The chairman of the agricultural department was called Seetadhyaksha in Mauryan age.
● There were many officers such as Ganikadhyaksha,` Mudradhyaksha,
Navadhyaksha, Ashwadhyaksha and Devtadhyaksha etc. in the Mauryan Age.
● The officer who kept the details of total income and expenditure of
the State and decided the economic policy was called Sannidhata. Under
him, worked officers like Treasurer and Shulkadhyaksha.
● In Mauryan age, the minister of factories and mines was called
Karmantirak. His main task was to excavate different metals from the
mines and look after the factories.
● In Mauryan age the Amatya of Fauzdari (Criminal) Court was called Pradeshta.
● The Amatya of the Civil Court was known as Vyavaharik.
● The Greek scholars have described the Amatyas as the seventh caste.
● The successor of Chandra Gupta Maurya is called name Bindusara in
majority of the Puranas. Ceylonese works, Buddhist textsand in Deepvansh
and Mahavansh. In Vayu Puran, his name is given as Bhadrasaar. In some
of the Purans he is called as Varisaar. In the Chinese
text—Fa-Uen-Chu-Lin, he is called as Bindupal. In another book
Rajabalikatha, the successor and son of Chandra Gupta is called as
● Ptolemy, the ruler of Egypt sent Dioniyas as his ambassador to the Court of Bindusaar.
● In Chandra Gupta Maurya’s time, the chief of the city was called
Nagaradhyaksha who worked like the modern District Magistrate.
● The smallest unit of the administration was the village. Its chief officer was called Gramik or Gramani.
● Gramani was elected by the people of the village.
● In every village, there was an officer who was called Gram Bhojak.
● In the administration of Chandra Gupta Maurya the department of
espionage was well organized. According to Kautilya, there were two
sections of the secret service—(1) Sansthan, (2) Sancharan.
● In the inscriptions, Asoka is called Devanampriya and Priyadarshi.
● The Ceylonese sources and Deepvansh, call him, Priyadarshan and Priyadarshi. Scholars think that these were his titles.
● Asoka appointed an officer called Mahamatras in every city and district.
● In the 13th year of his reign, he appointed Dharma Mahamatra and
Dharmayukta for the first time for the happiness and peace of his
● Upagupta was a Bauddhist monk of Mathura under his influence, Asoka changed his religion and accepted Buddhism.
● Asoka sent his daughter Sanghmitra and son Mahendra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
● In the mini edicts Asoka calls himself a Buddha Shakya.
● Asoka sent Majjhantik to propogate Buddhism in Kashmir.
● In 1750, it was Teffenthaler who first explored the Asokan pillars.
● Asoka’s last edict was found by Beadon in 1915 at Maski.
● The small edicts of Asoka are of two types. According to Smith, they were written in 259-232 B.C.
● The first kind of Asokan small pillar edicts are available at Roopnath
in Jabalpur district, Sahasaram in Shahabad district of Bihar, Maski,
in Raichoor district, and Vairat in Rajasthan.
● The second type of Asokan edicts have been found at Siddhpur (Chitralahug, Mysore) Jatig, Rameshwar and Brahmagiri.

● The Bhabru edict was found at Bairath near Jaipur in Rajasthan. In
this edict seven precepts of Buddhism have been given which Asoka liked
most and he desired that the people should read them and make their
conduct accordingly. This edict is preserved in Kolkata Museum.

● Two edicts about Kalinga have been found at Dhauli and Jaugarh. In
these, the principles of behaviour with he people of Kalinga and with
the frontier people have been outlined.

● Asokan small edicts have been found at about 15 places.

● The Erangudi edict was found in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh at a place known as Erangudi.

● The Maski small edict was found from Maski village of Raichoor district of Andhra Pradesh. It contains the name of Asoka.

● The Rajul Mandgiri edict was found on a mound 20 miles beyond Erangudi in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh.

● The Gurjara edict has been found from a village named Gurjara in Datia
district of Madhya Pradesh. It also mentions the name of Asoka.

● Ahraura edict was found from a hill of the village Ahraura in Mirzapur district of U.P.

● Palgoraria edict was found in 1975.

● The Sannati inscription (edict) has been found in the village Sannati in the district of Gulbarga of Karnatic State.
● The cave inscription are three in number which have been found in the
Barabar hills of Gaya city in Bihar. These refer to the charity
performed by the King to the Ajivaks.
● The language of the Kandahar edict is Greek and Aramaic.
● The Topara pillar edict has been found from a village named Topara in
Haryana. In the course of time Firoz Tughlaq brought it to Delhi where
it is kept at Feroz Shah Kotla ground.
● Rumindei small pillar edict was found from the Tarai of Nepal.

● Most of Asokan edicts are written in Prakrit language.
● In Gupta age ships and boats were manufactured in large numbers.
Gujarat, Bengal and Tamil Nadu were the main centres of cotton industry.
● Trade between India and China was carried on before Gupta age, in 2nd century.
● India had trade relations with eastern, countries. They were called Swarnabhumi (land of gold).
● Peshawar, Bharaunch, Ujjaini, Varanasi, Prayag, Patliputra, Mathura, Vaishali and Tamralipti were trade centres.
● In west Bharaunch and in east, Tamralipti were prominent ports.
● Gold, silver, bronze, tin, campher, dates and horses were imported.
● The collective unit of the people who worked in various industries, were known as ‘Kuliks’.
● ‘Kulik Nigam’ and ‘Shreshthi Nigam were the unions of wealthy traders.
The Kulik Nigam had its own seal which was used in commercial
correspondence and the trade-goods.
● In the Gupta age, India maintained trade relations with Arabia. Horses were imported from Arabia and Iran.
● The Seals of Kulik have been excavated from the town Meeta near Allahabad.
● From Vaishali 274 Seals of Sarthwah Kulik Nigam have been excavated prove that it was a great institution of the Gupta age.
● Trade with China, Japan and Sumatra was carried from the port of Tamralipti.
● In Gupta age the land tax was known as ‘Udrang’.
● Kadur and Charpal were the ports situated in Andhra Pradesh.
● Kaveripattanam and Tondai were the ports of Chola State.
● Kokai and Saliyur were the ports of Pandya State.
● Kottayam and Mujris were the ports of Malwa State.
● Sindhu, Orhoth, Kalyan and Mibor were other main ports for trade.
● Hiranya was the tax realized in cash. Bhutavat Pratyaya was the tax levied upon the imports from other countries.
● Haldand was the tax charged on the ploughed land.
● A definite portion of the produce from agricultural land was charged
as the land tax by the State. It was called Bhag tax. Generally it was
charged in kind.
● In the Gupta age, the land was donated only to the Brahmans.
● The land donated to Brahmans was called Brahmdeya.
● The tax free villages of the Brahmans were called Agrahara.
● In the Gupta age, the Gram Parishads (village councils) were autonomous and free from the State control.
● The uncultivated land was the property of the king.
● The women who remained unmarried throughout their life and passed their time in studies were called Brahmavadinis.
● Taxila, Varanasi and Ujjaini were prominent centres of education.
● In the Gupta society, intercaste marriages were performed.
● The slave system was practised in the Gupta age.
● The joint family system was in vogue in Gupta society.
● In the women though not as much respected as in Vedic period, yet enjoyed important position in the society of Gupta age.
● Sheelbhattarika was an educated and worthy woman of the Gupta age.
● Widow remarriages were performed in the Gupta age, But some works of
the age speak against it. Chandra Gupta II married the widow of
Ramgupta, his brother. Her name was Dhruva Swamini.
● Prostitutes, expert in music and dance, and perfect in sexology were called ‘Ganikas’.
● The traders and commercial professionals had their ‘Shrenis’ in Gupta
age. The Patkar, Tailik (oil traders), Pashan Kottak (stone cutters)
were important Shrenis.
● The author of ‘Swapnavasavaduttam’ was an eminent prose writer.
● The author of Bhattikavya or Ravan Vadh, was Bhatti, an eminent poet of Gupta age.
● Bhartahari worte ‘Niti Shatak’, Shringar Shatak and Vairagya Shatak
which became very famous. Some scholars believe that Bhartahari is
another name for Bhatti.
● ‘Kuntleshwar Daityam’ is a drama that testifies to the fact that Kalidas belonged to the Gupta age.
● ‘Abhigyanshakuntalam’ ‘Meghdoot’ ‘Ritusanhar’ are some of the major works of Kalidas.
● Kamsutra is a famous book on Sexology written by Vatsyayan.
● Vaibhashik and Sanghbhadra were the two Acharyas (teachers) of the Gupta age who wrote the literature of the Vaibhashik sect.

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