86. If the plural subject denotes a definite amount or quantity taken as a whole, the verb is singular.
Forty miles are a good distance. Incorrect
Forty miles is a good distance. Correct
Two – thirds of the book were rubbish. Incorrect
Two – third of the book was rubbish. Correct
The plural ‘heaps and ‘lots’ used colloquially for a great amount take a
singular verb unless a plural noun with ‘of’ is added.
There are lots of book. Incorrect
There is lots of book. Correct
There is lots of books to read. Incorrect
There are lots of books to read. Correct
When qualified by ‘each’ or ‘every’ two singular subjects, if even
connected by ‘and’, take a singular, if even connected by ‘and’, take a
Each boy and every girl were given rewards. Incorrect
Each boy and every girl was given rewards correct
89. The following Vern are always followed by an infinitive:
‘decide’, ‘plans’, ‘expect’, ‘fail’, ‘hope’, ‘intend’, ‘learn’,
‘promise’, ‘refuse’, ‘want’, ‘agree’, ‘consent’, ‘try’, ‘love’, etc.
I refuse meeting him. Incorrect
I refuse to meet him. Correct
the following verbs and phrases should be followed by gerund which is a
verbal noun: ‘enjoy’, ‘admit’, ‘deny’, ‘appreciate’, ‘regret’, ‘avoid’,
‘consider’, ‘stop’, ‘looking forward to’, ‘accustomed to’, ‘is used
to’, ‘do not mind’, ‘object to’, etc.
I am looking forward to receive your replay. Incorrect
I am looking forward to receiving your replay. Correct
He is used to work hard. Incorrect
He is used to working hard. Correct
The word ‘to’ is frequently used with the infinitive, but is not an
essential part of it. For example, after certain verb (‘bid’ ‘let’,
‘make’, ‘need’, ‘dare’, ‘see’, ‘hear’,) we use the infinitive without
Bid him to go there. Incorrect
Bid him go t here. Correct
Make him to stand. Incorrect
Make him stand. Correct
I saw him to cry. Incorrect
I saw him cry. Correct
92. The infinitive is used without ‘to’ after ‘had better’, ‘had rather’, ‘would rather’, ‘sooner than’, and ‘rather than’,
You had better to ask permission form him. Incorrect
You had better ask permission from him. Correct
93. ‘Than’ should be used after ‘no other’.
I met on other man but Mr. Roy. Incorrect
I met no other than Mr., Roy. Correct
Ram has no other claim except his degrees. Incorrect
Ram has other claim than his degrees. Correct
94. After the word ‘know’, ‘how’ or ‘when’ should be used before using an infinitive.
I know to write French. Incorrect
I know to write French. Correct
A verb may take an infinitive or a gerund according to its implication.
If the verb indicates a purpose, an infinitive should be used and if
the verb indicates a cause, a gerund should be used.
He went to school for seeing the principal. Incorrect
He went to school for see the principal. Correct
He was turned out to copy answers. Incorrect
He was turned out for copying answers. Correct
96. adverb ‘as’ is not used with verbs like ‘appointed’, ‘elected’, ‘considered’, ‘called’, but it is used with ‘regard’,
He was elected as President of our society. Incorrect
He was elected President of our society. Correct
I regard Ramesh my friend. Incorrect
I regard Ramesh as my friend. Correct
97. After the verb ‘doubt’ ‘that’ should not be used. ‘if’ or ‘whether’ should be used in its place.
I doubt that Ravi will come. Incorrect
I doubt if Ravi will come. Correct
Often a mistake is committed in the use of adjectives and adverbs. An
adjective is correctly used with the verb when some quality of the
subject, rather than of the action of the verb, is to be expressed.
The flowers smelt sweetly. Incorrect
The flowers smelt sweet. Correct
It is a common practice is conversation to make a statement and ask for
confirmation; as, ‘It’s very hot, isn’t it? Two points are to be kept
in mind. If the statement positive, the pattern will be
Auxiliary + n’t + subject.
It is raining, is it? Incorrect
It is raining, isn’t it? Correct
Your are not busy, aren’t you? Incorrect
You are not busy, are you? Correct
The point to note here is that the question tag will always have the same verb from which we have in the main statement:
I have finished my work, didn’t I? Incorrect
I have finished my work, have n’t? Correct
100. There are certain common errors which should be avoided.
(a) ‘The two first’ is a meaningless expression for it implies that two things may be first. We should say ‘the first two’.
The two first chapters of the novel are dull.
The first two chapters of the novel are dull.
(b) ‘Only’ should be placed immediately before the word it qualifies.
He only lost his ticket in the stampede. Incorrect
Only he lost his ticket in the stampede. Correct
(c) An infinitive verb should not be spit.
I request you to kindly to help me. Incorrect
I request you kindly to help me. Correct
(d) Care should be taken in the use of verbs.
The doctor saw the pulse of the patient. Incorrect
The doctor felt the pulse of the patient. Correct
He told the truth. Incorrect
He spoke the truth. Correct
Do not speak a lie. Incorrect
Do not tell a lie. Correct
Our team made a goal. Incorrect
Our team scored a goal. Correct
He is taking a bath. Incorrect
He is having a bath. Correct
I tell my prayers in the morning. Incorrect
I say my prayers in the morning. Correct
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