BSNL TTA OLD GK MATCH POINT (GEOGRAPHY)

Indian and World
Geography



World Geography
Important Facts
·        
Our galaxy is Milky Way Galaxy
(or the Akash Ganga)
. It is spiral in shape. It consists of over a 100
billion stars rotating and revolving about its centre. Nearest galaxy to ours
is Andromeda.
Measurement Units of Space are :
·        
Light Year : It is the distance covered
by light in one year in vacuum at a
speed of 3 105 km/s.
·        
Astronomical Unit (A.U) : It is the mean distance between the earth and the sun. One
light year is equal to 60,000 A.U.
·         
Parsec : It represents the distance
at which the
mean radius of earth’s orbit
subtends an angle of one second of an arc. It is equal to 3.26 light years.
· A star’s color indicates
the temperature of its surface. Blue color
denotes maximum
temperature.
Then comes yellow, then red, etc.
·         
If the star is of sun’s size, it becomes a White Dwarf.
·        
Brightest star is  Dog Star.
·         
Closest star of Solar System is Proxima Centauri (4.2 light years
away).
Earth
Solar System
·        
Earth solar system consists of :
·        
The Sun
·        
The Planets
·        
Dwarf Planets and countless fragments of left – overs called
asteroids, meteors, comets and satellites of the planets (Called small solar
system Bodies).
Solar
System Some Facts
·        
Biggest Planet: Jupiter
·        
Smallest Planet: Mercury
·        
Nearest Planet to Sun: Mercury
·        
Farthest Planet from Sun: Neptune
·        
Nearest Planet to Earth: Venus
·        
Brightest Planet: Venus
·        
Brightest star after Sun Sirius
·        
Planet with maximum
satellites
:
Jupiter
·        
Coldest Planet: Neptune
·        
Hottest Planet: Venus
·        
Heaviest Planet: Jupiter
·        
Red Planet: Mars
·        
Biggest Satellite: Gannymede
·        
Smallest Satellite: Deimos
·        
Blue Planet: Earth
·        
Morning/Evening Star: Venus
·        
Earth’s Twin: Venus
·        
Green Planet: Neptune
·        
Planet with a big red spot: Jupiter
·        
Lord of the Heavens: Jupiter
·        
Greatest Diurnal Temperature: Mercury




 Earth
Movement
·        
The Earth also called Blue Planet. It is the densest of all planets.
·        
Earth Circumference : 40,232 Kilometers.
·        
Earth Area : 510 million Square
Kilometers Average distance from
sun: 149 million-Kilometers.
·        
Earth Perihelion : Nearest position of earth to
sun. The earth reaches its
perihelion on January 3 every year at a distance of about 147
million-Kilometers.
·        
Aphelion : Farthest position of earth
from sun. The earth reaches its
aphelion on July 4, when the earth
is at a distance of 152 million Kilometers.
·        
The shape of the earth is oblate spheroid or oblate ellipsoid (i.e.
almost spherical, flattened a little at the poles with a slight bulge at the
centre).
Types of Earth Movements:
·        
1. Rotation or daily movement.
·        
2. Revolution or annual movement.
Earth Rotation
·        
Spins on its imaginary axis from west to east in 23 hrs, 56 min and
40.91 sec.
·        
Rotational velocity at equator is 1667 Kilometers/h and it decreases
towards the poles, where it is zero.
Earth’s rotation results in
·        
i . Causation of days and
nights;
·        
ii . A difference of one hour between two meridians which are 15°
apart;
·        
iii. Change in the direction of wind and ocean currents;
·        
Rise and fall of tides
everyday.
·        
The longest day in North Hemisphere is June 21, while shortest day is
on 22 Dec (Vice-versa in S. Hemisphere).
·        
Days and
nights are almost equal at the equator.
Earth Revolution
·        
It is earth’s motion in elliptical orbit around the sun. Earth’s
average orbital velocity is 29.79 Kilometers/s.
·        
Takes 365 days, 5 hrs, 48 min and 45.51 sec. It results in one extra
day every fourth year.
·        
Revolution of the earth
results in i . Change of seasons
ii   
. Variation in the lengths of days and nights at different times of
the year
iii  . Shifting of wind belts
iv  . Determination of latitudes.
The 4 Earth Seasons are:
·        
Spring: On March 21, the sun is
directly overhead the equator. This
is the season of spring in the northern hemisphere.
·        
Summer: On June 21, the sun is
directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer.
Thus, the northern hemisphere experiences summer.
·        
Autumn: On September 23, the sun
returns to the equator, and the
northern hemisphere experiences autumn.
·        
Winter: On December 22, the sun is
at the Tropic of Capricorn, and the
northern hemisphere experiences winter.
Earth
Latitude and Longitude
Earth Latitude
·        
Imaginary lines drawn parallel to the equator. Measured as an angle
whose apex is at the centre of the earth
·        
The equator represents 0° latitude, while the North Pole is 90° N and
the South Pole 90° S
·        
23½° N represents Tropic of
Cancer while 23½° S represents Tropic of Capricorn.
·        
66½° N represents Arctic
Circle while 66½° S represents Antarctic Circle.
·        
There are total 181 latitudes including the equator. Each parallel of
latitude is a circle, but they are not equal.
·        
The circle becomes smaller towards the poles. Equator is the ‘Greatest
Circle’ that can be drawn on the earth’s surface.
·        
The distance between any two parallels of latitude is always equal.
Earth Longitude
·        
It is the angular distance measured from die centre of the earth. On
the globe the lines of longitude are drawn as a series of semicircles that
extend from the North Pole to the South Pole through the equator. They are also
called meridians.
·        
The distance between any two meridians is not equal. At the equator, 1
degree = 111 km. At 30°N or S, it is 96.5 km. It goes on decreasing this way
until it is zero at the poles.
·        
There are 360 meridians of longitude. The prime meridian is a
longitude of 00, passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich near
London.
·        
This meridian is taken by geographers to divide the earth into the
eastern and the western hemispheres.
·        
Each meridian of longitude is a semi-circle. 180° meridian
(International Date Line) lies exactly opposite to ° meridian. Such points are
called Antipodl Points.
·        
The earth is divided into 24 longitudinal zones, each being 15° or 1
hour apart in time (4 minutes / degree).
Longitude and Time
·        
Places that are on the same meridian have the same local (sun) time.
Since the earth makes one complete revolution of 360° in 24 hours, it passes
through 15° in one hour or 1° in 4 minutes.
·        
The earth rotates from west to east, hence places east of Greenwich
see the sun earlier and gain time whereas places west of Greenwich see the sun
later and lose time.
·        
India, whose longitudinal extent is approx. 30°, has adopted only one
time zone, selecting the 82.5°E for the standard time which is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT
(Greenwich Mean Time).
International
Date Line
·        
It is the 180° meridian running over the Pacific Ocean, deviating at
Aleutian Islands, Fiji, Samoa and Gilbert Islands.
·        
Travelers crossing the Date
Line from west to east (i.e., from Japan to USA) repeat a day and travelers
crossing it from east to west (i.e., from USA to Japan) lose a day.
Earth Eclipses
Earth Lunar Eclipse
·        
When earth comes between sun
and moon.
·        
Occurs only on a full moon
day
.
However, it does not occur on every full moon day because the moon is so small
and the plane of its orbit is tilted about 5° with respect to the plane of the
earth’s orbit. It is for this reason that eclipses do not occur every month.
·        
This light is red because the atmosphere scatters the other colors
present in sunlight in greater
amounts than it does red.
Earth Tides
Earth Tides
·        
Refer to the phenomenon of regular rise and fall of the sea water.
Though both sun and moon exert gravitational force on earth, resulting in the
production of tides, the moon, by nature of its
closeness to the earth, has
greater control over the timings of the tidal rises and falls.
·        
The interval between two tides is 12 hrs and 26 minutes.
Spring Tide
·        
When the sun, moon and the earth are in a straight line, the
gravitational force is at its greatest because tide producing forces of both
sun and moon complement each other and they pull together. This produces tides
of unusually great range, called the spring tide.
·        
These occur about twice a month: at new moon when the sun and the moon
are in conjugation and at full moon when they are in opposition.
Neap Tide
·        
Lowest magnitude as the tide producing forces of sun and moon act
opposite to each other, as they form a triangle.
·        
This happens during phases of first and third quarter, i.e., at half
moon, the sun’s tide producing force tends to balance the tide producing force
of the moon., resulting in tides of unusually small range known as neap tides.
Composition of Earth
·        
Made up of over 100 elements.
The following 8 are important:
·        
Oxygen   46.5%
·        
Silicon  27.72%
·        
Aluminum  8.13%
·        
Iron  5 .01%
·        
Calcium  3.63%
·        
Sodium  2.85%
·        
Potassium  2.62%
·        
Magnesium  2.09%
Earthquakes
·        
Tremors or vibrations of earth’s surface produced by internal forces.
·        
The point of origin of earthquake is called Seismic focus.
·        
The point on the earth’s surface vertically above the earth’s surface
is called Epicenters.
·        
The passage of earthquake waves is recorded by Seismograph.
·        
The magnitude of waves is measured on Richter’s scale. For measurement of the intensity of the
earthquake (damage caused), the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used.
Earth Volcanoes
·        
A volcano is a vent or opening usually circular in form through which
heated materials consisting of gases, water, liquid lava and fragments of rocks
are ejected from the highly heated interiors to he surface of the earth.
Classification
of Volcanoes
1. Classification on the basis of Periodicity of
Eruptions:
·        
Active Volcano: Volcano which erupt
periodically. E.g. Maona Loa in
Hawaii, Etna in Sicily, Vesuvius in Italy, Stromboli in Mediterranean Sea, etc.
·        
Dormant Volcano: Volcano which has been quiescent for a long time but in which
there is a possibility of eruption. E.g. Fujiyama in Japan, Krakatoa in
Indonesia, Barren island Volcano in Andamans, etc.
Earth
Mountains
Types of Mountains
·        
Fold Mountains of the World:
They are
formed when the rocks of the crust
of the earth folded
under stress,
mainly by forces of compression (as a result of series of earthquakes). E.g. – All big mountain systems:
Himalayas, Alps, Andes, Rockies, Atlas, etc.
Old Mountains
·        
They belong to pre-drift era, then subjected to denudation and uplift;
many faults were formed; occur as relict mountains today. E.g. Pennines
(Europe), Appalachians (US), Aravallis
(India)
.
·        
Relict Mountains: Sometimes, the mountains are carved out as a result of erosion of
plateaus & high planes by various agents of erosion. E.g., Highlands of
Scotland, Sierras of Spain, Catskill mountains of New York and Nilgiri, Parasnath, Girnar, Rajmahal of
India.
Major Mountain Ranges of the World
·        
Andes -South America -6,960
·        
Himalayas Karakoram-Hindukush -South
Central Asia 8,850
·        
Rockies  North America 4,401
·        
Great Dividing Range  East Australia -2,228
·        
Western Ghats  Western India- 2,637
·        
Caucasus Europe,   -Asia -5,642
·        
Alaska  USA -6,194
·        
Alps  Europe -4,808
·        
Apennines  Europe -2,912
·        
Ural  Asia -1,895
·        
Pennines  Europe -893
·        
Pyrenees  Europe- 3,404
·        
Appalachian  North America- 2,040
·        
Cyclones in World
·        
It is a
system of very low pressure in the center surrounded by increasingly high
pressure outwards.



cyclones.
These are known as :
·        
Cyclones – in the Indian Ocean
·        
Hurricanes – in the Caribbean Islands
·        
Typhoons – in the China Sea
·        
Willy-Willies – in the North West
Australia
·        
Tornadoes – in coastal US.
·        
Twisters – in Mississippi Valley, USA
Earth Clouds
High Clouds (mean ht 5-13 km)
·         
Cirrus Clouds: Indicates fair weather.
·         
Cirrocumulus Clouds: Forms the mackerel sky.
·        
Cirrostratus Clouds: Produces a halo around sun and moon.
Middle Clouds (mean ht 2-7 km)
·        
Altocumulus Clouds: Indicate fine weather.
·        
Alto-stratus Clouds: Associated with
development of bad weather.
Low (mean ht up to 2 km)
·        
Stratus Clouds: Brigs dull weather,
usually accompanied with a drizzle.
·         
Nimbostratus Clouds: If rain or snow is falling
from a stratus cloud, it is called
nimbostratus
Riverside
Cities – World
City
River
Country
Amsterdam
Amsel
Netherlands
Antwerp
Schelde
Belgium
Baghdad
Tigris
Iraq
Belgrade
Danube
Yugoslavia
Berlin
Spree
Germany
Bonn
Rhine
Germany
Budapest
Danube
Hungary
Cairo
Nilew
Egypt
Glasgow
Clyde
Scotland
Hamburg
Elbe
Germany
Karachi
Indus
Pakistan
Lahore
Ravi
Pakistan
London
Thames
England
Moscow
Moskva
Russia
New York
Hudson
USA
Paris
Seine
France
Quebuc
St.Lawrence
Canada
Yangon
Irrawaddy
Myanmar
Rome
Tiber
Italy
Tokyo
Sumida
Japan
Vienna
Danube
Austria
Warsaw
Vistula
Poland
Washington
Potomac
USA
The Continents of the World,
·        
Asia Continents Countries
·        
Africa Continents Countries
·        
North America Continents Countries
·        
South America Continents Countries
·         
Europe Continents Countries
·        
Australia Continents Countries
·        
Antarctica Continents Countries
Indian Geographical Location
·        
Lying between latitude 4 N to 37°6 N and from longitude 68°7 E to
97°25 E, the country is divided into almost equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in
MP)
.
·        
The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island)
is the Indira Point (6°45), while
Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian
mainland. The country thus lies wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
·        
The 82°30 E longitude is
taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle
of India (from Naini, near Allahabad).
Area Geography & Boundaries Geography
·        
India stretches 3,214 km from North to South & 2,933 km from East
to West.
·        
Geography Area of India : 32,87,263 sq. km. Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and roughly 16%
of the world population.
·        
Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep
and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the coastline measures about 7516.6 km.
·        
In India, of the total land mass:
Plains Geography: 43.3% Plateaus: 27.7%
Hills: 18.6%
Mountains Geography: 10.7%
·         
In the South, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar
&  the Palk Strait separate
India from Sri Lanka.
·        
Total land neighbours: 7
(Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar).
·        
India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of
Bengal and Lakshadweep, Minicoy
&  Amindive Islands in the
Arabian Sea.
The Andaman and Nicobar Group
·        
Andamans is a group of 204 islands of which the largest is Middle
Andaman.
·        
The Andamans are believed to be extensions of mountains system in the
N.E. part of the country.
·        
Saddle Peak (737 m) in
N.Andaman is the highest peak
.
·        
The Nicobars is a group of 19 islands of which the largest is Great
Nicobar. Most of them are volcanic in nature.
·        
Great Nicobar is the southernmost island and is only 147 km away from
Sumatra island of Indonesia.
·        
Volcanic Islands: Barren and Narcondam Islands. Barren is in the
process of eruption these days after lying dormant for 200 years
The
Arabian Sea Group
·        
All the islands in the Arabian Sea (Total 25) are coral islands and
are surrounded by Fringing Reefs (North :Lakshadweep, South: Minicoy).
Important Points
·        
Ten Degree Channel separates Andamans from Nicobars (Little Andaman
from Car Nicobar)
·        
Duncan Passage lies between South Andaman and Little Andaman.
·        
Nine Degree Channel separates Kavaratti from Minicoy Island.
·        
Eight Degree Channel separates Minicoy Island (India) from Maldives.
Rivers of India
·        
In India, the rivers can be divided into two main groups:
·        
1. Himalayan Rivers
·        
2. Peninsular Rivers
Himalayan Rivers of India
In this three major river systems are there:
The Indus System
·        
It has a total length of 2880 km (709 km in India). Rises in Tibet
(China) near Mansarovar Lake.
·        
In Jammu and Kashmir, its Himalayan tributaries are: Zanskar, Dras,
Gartang, Shyok, Shigar, Nubra, Gilgit, etc
·        
Its most important tributaries, which join Indus at various places,
are: Jhelum (725 km), Chenab (1800 km), Ravi (720 km), Beas (470 km) &
Sutlej (1050 km).
·        
According to the Indus Water Treaty signed between India and Pakistan
in 1960, India can utilize only 20% of the total discharge of Indus, Jhelum and
Chenab.
The Ganga System
·        
It is 2525 km long of which 1450 km is in Uttarakhand and UP, 445 km
in Bihar and 520 km in West Bengal.
·        
The Ganga, the head stream is constituted of two main rivers –
Bhagirthi and Alaknanda, which combine at Devprayag to form Ganga.
·        
Before Alaknanda meets Bhagirthi at Devprayag, Mandakini meets
Alaknanda at Rudraprayag.
·        
Sources: Bhagirthi from Gaumukh,
Alaknanda from Badrinath, Mandakini
from Kedarnath (all from Uttarakhand).
The Brahmaputra system
·        
It has a total length of 2900 km. It rises in Tibet (from
Chemayungdung glacier), where it is called Tsangpo, and enters the Indian
territory (in Arunachal Pradesh) under the name Dihang.
·        
Important Tributaries: Subansiri, Kameng, Dhansiri, Manas, Teesta.
·        
In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra is known by the name of Jamuna while Ganga
gets the name Padma.
·        
Mahanadi River (858 km) : Rises in Raipur distt. in Chhatisgarh. Main tributaries: lb,
Seonath, Hasdo, Mand, Jonk, Tel, etc.
·        
Godavari River (1465 km) : Also called Vriddha Ganga or Dakshina Ganga. It is the
longest peninsular river. Rises in Nasik. Main tributaries: Manjra, Penganga, Wardha,
Indravati, Wainganga, Sabari, etc.
·        
Krishna River (1327 km) : Rises in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Main tributaries:
Koyna, Dudhganga, Panchganga, Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, Musi,
etc.
·        
Cauvery River (805 km) : It is the largest peninsular river (maximum amount of
water). Infact, it is the only
peninsular
river which flows almost throughout the year. Known as the ‘Ganga of the
South’.
West Flowing Rivers in India
·        
Narmada River (1057 km) : Has only l/10th part in Gujarat. Rises in Amarkantak
Plateau and flows into Gulf of Khambat. It forms the famous Dhuan Dhar Falls
near Jabalpur. Main tributaries: Hiran, Burhner, Banjar, Shar,
Shakkar, Tawa,
etc.
·        
Tapti River (724 km) : Rises from Betul distt in
MR Also known as twin or handmaid of
Narmada. Main tributaries: Purna, Betul, Arunavati, Ganjal, etc.
·         
Sabarmati River (416 km) : Rises from Aravallis
in Rajasthan.
·        
Mahi River (560 km) : Rises from Vindhyas in MR
·        
Luni River (450 km) : Rises from Aravallis. Also called Salt River. It is finally lost
in the marshy grounds at the head of the Rann of Kuchchh.
Note:
·        
The largest man-made lake in India is Indira Sagar Lake, which is the
reservoir of Sardar Sarovar Project, Onkareshwar Project and Maheshwar Project
in Gujarat-MP.
·        
Chilka Lake (Orissa) is the largest
brackish water lake of India.
Otherwise also, it is the largest lake of India.
·        
Wular Lake (J & K) is the largest
fresh water lake of India. Dul Lake
is also there in J & K.
·        
From Sambhar and Didwana Lake (Rajasthan), salt is produced.
·        
Other important lakes are Vembanad in Kerala and Kolleru & Pulicat
in AP.
The three important Gulfs in the Indian
Territory are:
·        
Gulf of Kuchch (west of
Gujarat)
:
Region with highest potential of
tidal energy generation
·        
Gulf of Cambay or Gulf of
Khambat (Gujarat) :
Narmada, Tapti,
Mahi and Sabarmati drain into it.
·        
Gulf of Mannar (south east
of Tamil Nadu) :
Asia’s first
marine biosphere reserve.
Agriculture in India
Cropping Seasons in India
·        
Kharif Crops of India
·        
Sown in summers between May and July, and harvested after the rains,
in September and October. Eg: Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Jute,
Sugarcane, Tobacco, Groundnut, Pulses, etc.
Rabi Crops of India
·        
Sown at the beginning of winter and harvested before the onset of the
summer season, between Feb and April. Eg: Wheat, barley, oilseeds, gram,
potatoes, etc.
Zayad Crops
·        
They are raised between April and June. E.g. : Melon, watermelon,
cucumber, toris, leafy and other vegetables.
Cash Crops of India (Commercial Crops)
·        
Grown mainly for the market, only a small portion of the product is
consumed by the farmers themselves (cotton, sugarcane etc.
·                     
Riverside Cities – India
·                     
 
City
River
State
Agra
Yamuna
Uttar Pradesh
Ahmedabad
Sabarmati
Gujarat
Ayodhya
Sarayu
Uttar Pradesh
Badrinath
Ganga
Uttarakhand
Cuttack
Mahanadi
Orissa
Delhi
Yamuna
Delhi
Dibrugarh
Brahmaputra
Assam
Haridwar
Ganga
Uttaranchal
Hyderabad
Musi
Andhra Pradesh
Jabalpur
Narmada
Madhya Pradesh
Kanpur
Ganga
Uttar Pradesh
Kolkata
Hoogly
West Bengal
Kota
Chambal
Rajasthan
Lucknow
Gomti
Uttar Pradesh
Ludhiana
Sutlej
Punjab
Nasik
Godavari
Maharashtra
Pandharpur
Bhima
Maharashtra
Patna
Ganga
Bihar
Rajahmundry /
Godavari
Andhra Pradesh
Rajamahendri
Sambalpur
Mahanadi
Orissa
Srinagar
Jhelum
Jammu
Kashmir
Surat
Tapti
Gujarat
Tirucharapallil
Kaveri
/
Tamil Nadu
Cauveri
Varanasi
Ganga
Uttar Pradesh
Vijayawada
Krishna
Andhra Pradesh


·                       
Important National Park in India
·        
Kaziranga National Park
Golaghat/Nagaon
(Assam)
·         
Manas Tiger Sanctuary – Barpeta
(Assam)
·         
Keoladeo National Park
Bharatpur (Rajasthan)
·         
Sundarbans Tiger Sanctuary
24Paraganas (West
Bengal)
·        
Bandhavgarh National Park
Shahdol (Madhya
Pradesh)
·        
Kanha National Park – Mandla
(Madhya Pradesh)
·        
Dudwa National Park – Lakhimpur
Kheri (Uttar
Pradesh)
·        
Chandraprabha  Sanctuary  –  Varanasi 
(Uttar
Pradesh)
·        
Corbett National Park
Nainital (Uttarakhand)
·        
Rajaji National Park
Dehradun, (Uttarakhand)
·         
Dachigam National Park
Srinagar (Jammu &
Kashmir)
·        
Ranthambore Tiger Sanctuary
Sawai Madhopur
(Rajasthan)
·        
Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary
Belgaum (Karnataka)
·         
Bandipur National Park – Mysore
(Karnataka)
·        
Gir National Park – Junagarh
(Gujarat)
·        
Nal
Sarovar Bird Sanctuary – Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
·        
Hazaribagh National Park
Hazaribagh
(Jharkhand)
·        
Nelapattu  Bird  Sanctuary 
– 
Nellore  (Andhra
Pradesh)
·        
Mudumalai Sanctuary – Nilgiris
(Tamilnadu)
·        
Periyar Sanctuary – Idduki
(Kerala)
·         
Simlipal Tiger Sanctuary
Mayurbhanj (Odisha)
·        
Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary
Kendrapara
(Odisha)
·        
Vikramshila  Gangetic  Dolphin 
Sanctuary 
Bhagalpur (Bihar)
·        
Silent Valley National Park
Palakkad, (Kerala)
·        
Rani Jhansi Marine National Park
Andaman &
Nicobar Island
·        
Campbell National Park
Andaman & Nicobar
Islands
·         
Galathea
National Park – Andaman & Nicobar
Island
·         
Mahatma
Gandhi Marine National Park – Andaman
Nicobar
Largest Producers of crops in India
·        
The
largest producer of wheat in India -Uttar
Pradesh
·        
The largest producer of sugarcane in India -Uttar
Pradesh
·        
The largest producer of groundnut in India -Gujarat
·        
The largest producer of tea in India – Assam
·        
The largest producer of coffee in India -Karnataka
·        
The largest producer of jute in India -West Bengal
·        
The largest producer of tobacco in India –Andhra
Pradesh
·        
The  largest  producer 
of  bananas  in 
India
-Tamilnadu
·        
The  largest  producer 
of  onion  in  India
-Maharashtra
·        
The largest producer of black pepper in India
-Kerala
Railways in India
·        
Indian railway system is the largest in Asia and the fourth largest in
the world. It is the biggest departmental public undertaking in the country.
·        
The first train ran in India between Bombay and Thane, a stretch of 34
km. on April 16 1853.
·        
The Indian Railways celebrated its 150th anniversary on April 16,
2003. To commemorate the occasion, 16 January – Shatabadi inter – city express
trains were announced to be inducted.
·        
The second train ran between Howrah and Hooghly in 1854.
·        
The headquarters of Indian Railway is in New Delhi.
·        
The first electric train in India was ‘Deccan Queen’. It was
introduced in 1929 between Bombay and Poona.
·        
Indian Railways has the second biggest electrified system in the world
after Russia.
·        
The fastest train in India is the Shatabadi Express whose maximum
speed is 140 km/hr.
·        
The total route covered is approx 63,000 km.
·        
The total number of railway stations in India is 7,100.
·        
The longest railway platform in India is at Kharagpur (W.B.).
·        
Mumbai is the destination where maximum number of trains in India head
for.
·        
The longest train route is of ‘Himsagar Express’ from Jammu Tavi to
Kanyakumari. It covers a distance of 3,726 km and passes through ten states.
·        
The first Metro Rail was introduced in Kolkata (W.Bengal) on October
24, 1984. The two stations connected were Dumdum and Belgachhia.
·        
The Indian Railways operate in three different gauges :
·        
1. Broad
Gauge Railway (Distance between rails is
1.67  m).
·        
2. Metre
Gauge Railways (Distance between rails is
1.0     
m).
3.
Narrow Gauge Railways India (Distance between rails is 0.762 or 0.610 m
Railway Manufacturing Units :
·        
Chittaranjan Locomotive Works : Located in Chittaranjan (W.B) and
manufactures electric engines.


·        
Diesel Locomotive Works : Located in Varanasi (U.P) and manufactures
diesel engines.
·        
Integral Coach Factory in India : Located in Perambur (TN) and
manufactures rail coaches.
·        
Wheel and Axle Plant : Locatedat Yalahaka (Bangalore, Karnataka) and
manufactures wheels and axles.
·        
Diesel Component Works : Locatedat Patiala (Punjab) and manufactures
components of diesel engines.
·        
Rail Coach Factory in India : Located at Kapurthala (Punjab) and
manufactures rail coaches.
Road Transport in India
·        
India’s road network is one of the largest in the world. The total
length of roads is more than 33 lakh km. or the purpose of maintenance and
construction, roads are classified into National Highways, State Highways,
District Highways, Village Roads, Border Roads, etc.
·        
National highways are maintained by the Central Government, State
highways by the respective state government while District highways by the
respective District Board. Border roads and International highways are also die
responsibility of Central Government.
·        
The present length of the National Highways in India is approx. 45,000
km. They constitute only 2% of the total road length and carries nearly 40% of
the road traffic.
Some of the Important National Highways are:
·        
NH 1: New Delhi – Ambala –
Jalandhar – Amritsar.
·        
NH 2: Delhi – Mathura – Agara –
Kanpur – Allahabad – Varanasi –
Kolkata.
·        
NH 3: Agra – Gwalior – Nasik –
Mumbai
·        
NH 4: Thane and Chennai via Pune
and Belgaun.
·        
NH 5: Kolkata – Chennai
·        
NH 6: Kolkata – Dhule
·        
NH 7: Varanasi – Kanyakumari
·        
NH 8: Delhi – Mumbai (via Jaipur,
Baroda and Ahmedabad)
·        
NH 9: Mumbai – Vijaywada
·         
NH 10: Delhi – Fazilka
·        
NH 11: Agra – Bikaner
·        
NH 12: Jabalpur – Jaipur
·        
NH 24: Delhi – Lucknow
·        
NH 27: Allahabad – Varanasi
·        
NH 28: Barauni – Lucknow
·        
NH 29: Gorakhpur – Varanasi
·        
NH 56: Lucknow – Varanasi
·        
NH – 7 is the longest highway of
India
Airports in India :
There are 12 International Airports in India :
·        
Begumpet Airport, Hyderabad
·        
Calicut International
Airport
,
Calicut
·        
Chatrapati Shivaji
International Airport
, Mumbai
·         
Chennai International
Airport
,
Chennai
·        
HAL Airport, Bangalore
·        
Goa Airport in Vasco da Gama
city
,
Goa
·        
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordolio
International Airport
, Guwahati
·         
Indira Gandhi International
Airport
,
Delhi
·        
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
International Airport
, Kolkata
·        
Rja Sansi International
Airport
,
Amritsar
·        
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
International Airport
, Ahmedabad
·        
Thiruvananathapuram
International Airport
, Thiruvananathapuram
Note:The
Indira Gandhi International Airport and the
Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport handle more than half of the air
traffic in South Asia. Besides these airports several other domestic airports
are located in India
Salient Features :
·        
Kolkata Port (including
Haldia)
:
Kolkata is a riverine port, located
about 128 km from the Bay of Bengal on the banks of river Hooghly. Haldia was
developed because excessive silting prevented the entry of large marine vessels
in Kolkata.
·         
Paradip Port : Located on the Orissa coast
along
the Bay of Bengal. India
exports raw iron to Japan from here.
·        
Vishakhapatnam Port : The deepest port, located in Andhra Pradesh. It serves the
Bhilai and Rourkela steel plants.
·        
Chennai Port : Oldest artificial harbour.
This port ranks only second after Mumbai
in terms of the traffic handling capacity.
·        
Ennore Port : Declared a major port in
2001. It is the first port with
corporate participation. Provided with all the modern facilities for handling
the thermal coal required for Tamil Nadu Electricity Board Power Station.
·        
Tuticorin Port : It came into existence
during the reign of Pandya kings. It
has an artificial deep sea harbour.
·         
Cochin Port : A fine natural harbour
located on
Kerala coast. Handles the
export of tea, cofee and spices and import of petroleum and fertilisers.
·        
New Mangalore Port : The ‘Gateway of Karnataka’. Handles the export of iron-ore of
Kudremukh.
·        
Marmugao Port : It has a naval base.
India’s leading iron-ore port.
·        
Mumbai Port : A natural port, India’s
busiest. A new port, Nhava Sheva, is
being developed near Mumbai port.
·        
Jawaharlal Nehru Port : Occupies the 5th position in the world’s faster growing ports.
·        
Kandla Port : Called the ‘offspring of
partition’ as it was developed after
the partition as a substitute of Karachi port. It is a tidal port and a free
trade zone located in the Rann of Kachchh.
IMPORTANT POINTS
·        
The first person to use the word geography was –
Erastosthenes (276 – 194 BC)
·        
The First presented the India on the world map –
Tolmie
·        
10 latitude give the seperatio of – 111 kms
·        
10 Longitude is equal to – 4”
(minutes)
·        
The Closest capital to tropic cancer – Ranchi
·        
3 capitals are above to Tropic of Cancer – Jaipur,
Aizwol, Agarthala
·        
The atmosphere layer which reflects radio – waves is known as – Lonosphere
·        
Which State is known as the name of Black Water? –Andaman and Nicobar
·        
Which latitude divides India into two parts? – 23 ½ 0
·        
The largest delta in the world is – The delta of
Ganga
·        
The type of climate in India is – Monsoon
·        
Most of the iron in India is found in – Dharwar
Rocks
·         
Ozone layer is found in – Stratosphere
·        
“Ring of fire” refers to – Circum – Pacific Seismic belt
·        
Willy – Willy is the tropical cyclone occurring in –
Coast of North – west Australia
·        
On which river, the Baglihar Hydro- powr project is located? – Chenab
·        
The term Rugur refers to – Black
cotton Soil
·         
Which two peninsular rivers flow through troughs?
Narmad and Tapi
·        
How much area does India cover of the total geographical area of the
world? – 2.42 %
·        
The length of the Indian coastline is 7516.6 km


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2 Comments

  1. PRAMOD YADAV August 16, 2016

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