BSNL TTA MATCH POINT OLD GK (HISTORY)

INDIAN HISTORY

 THIS IS SAMPLE OF INDIAN HISTORY WHICH IS ADDED IN STUDY MATERIAL PAGE
 IF YOU WANT TO FULL THEN DOWNLOAD IT.IT IS HELPFUL FOR ANY EXAM
BUDDHISM IN INDIA 
Born in 563 BC
on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in Nepal.
His father
Suddhodana was the Saka ruler.
His mother (Mahamaya, of Kosala
dynasty) died after 7 days of his birth. Brought up by stepmother
Gautami. 
Married at 16 to
Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and had a son named Rahula.
Left his palace at 29 (with Channa, the
charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of  
truth (also called ‘Mahabhinishkramana’
or The Great Renunciation) and wandered for 6 years. 
Attained
‘Nirvana’ or ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal
tree.
Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath
where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is called  Dharmachakrapravartan’ or ‘Turning of
the Wheel of Law’. 
Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in
Deoria district of UP) in 483
BC at the age of 80 in the Malla republic.
Buddhist Councils :The monks gathered 4 times after the death of
Buddha and the effect of these events had their  effect on Buddhism.
First Council : At Rajgriha, in 483 BC under the chairman ship of Mehakassaapa (King
was Ajatshatru). Divided the teachings of Buddha into two Pitakas – Vihaya
Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka. Upali recited the Vinaya Pitaka and Ananda recited the
Sutta Pitaka.
Second Council : At Vaishali, in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was Kalasoka).
Followers divided
into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas.
Third Council : At Pataliputra, in 250 BC
under Mogaliputta Tissa (King was
Ashoka). In this, the third part of the Tripitaka was coded in the Pali
language.
Fourth Council : At Kashmir (Kundalvan), in 72 AD
under Vasumitra (King was Kanishka). Vice‐ Chairman was Ashwaghosha). Divided
Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.
Buddist Literature :Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly
referred to as Tripitakas, ie
‘Threefold Basket’.
Vinaya
Pitaka :
Rules of
discipline in Buddhist monasteries.
Sutta
Pitaka :
Largest,  contains 
collection  of Buddha’s sermons.
Abhidhamma Pitaka : Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion.
JAINISM IN INDIA
Founded by Rishabhanath.
There were 24 tirthankaras
(Prophetsor Gurus), all Kshatriyas.
First was Rishabhanath
(Emblem: Bull).
The 23rd
Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of King Ashvasena of
Banaras. His main teachings were: Non‐injury, Non‐lying, Non‐stealing, Non‐possession.
The 24th and the
last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem: Lion).
Vardhman Mahavira History :
He was born in Kundagram
(Distt Muzafffarpur,Bihar) in 599 BC.
His father
Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan. His mother was Trishla, sister of
Lichchavi Prince Chetak of Vaishali.
Mahavira was related to
Bimbisara.
Married to
Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became his
first disciple.
At 30, after the death of
his parents, he became an ascetic.
In the 13th year of his
asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha), outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama, he
attained supreme knowledge (Kaivalya).
From now on he was called
Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and his followers were named Jains. He
also got the title of Arihant, i.e., worthy.
At the age of 72, he
attained death at Pava, near Patna, in 527 BC.
Note: In Jainism, three Ratnas (Triratnas) are given and they are called the way to
Nirvana. They are Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.
History
of Jain Councils :
First Council : Held at
Pataliputra by Sthulabhadra in the
beginning of third century BC. It resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to
replace 14 Purvas.
Second Council : It was held at Vallabhi
(Gujarat) in the fifth century AD
under the leadership of Devridhigani.
His capital was
Rajgir (Girivraja) His capital was surrounded by 5 hills, the openings in which
were closed by stone walls on all sides. This made Rajgir
Ajatshatru History (492 BC –
460 BC):
.Son of
Bimbisara killed his father & seized the throne.
Buddha died during his
reign; arranged the first Buddhist Council.
History of Udayin (460 – 444 BC): He founded
the new capital at Pataliputra, situated at the confluence of the Ganga
& Son.
Shishunaga Dynasty :
Founded  by 
a  minister  Shishunaga. 
He  was succeeded
by Kalasoka (II Buddhist council). Dynasty lasted for two generations only.
Greatest achievement was the
destruction of power of Avanti.
Nanda Dynasty :
Founder was Mahapadma Nanda
Alexander attacked
India in their reign. Dhana Nanda was there at that time.
THE MAGADHA EMPIRE
Period of
Magadha Empire :
6th
Century – 4th Century BC.
Extent of Magadha Empire : Magadha embraced the former
districts of Patna, Gaya & parts of Shahabad & grew to be the leading
state of the time.
Haryanka Dynasty : Originally founded in 566 BC by the grandfather of Bimbisara, but
actual foundation by Bimbisara.
King Bimbisara of Magadha
(544 BC – 492 BC):
Contemporary of Buddha.
Alexander’s Invasion of
India
Alexander (356 BC – 323 BC)
was the son of Philip of Macedonia (Greece) who invaded India in 326BC.
At that time NW
India was split up into a number of small independent states like Taxila,
Punjab(kingdom of Porus), Gandhara etc.
Except Porus who
fought the famous battle of Hydaspes (on banks of Jhelum) with Alexander, all
other kings submitted meekly.
When Alexander
reached Beas, his soldiers refused to go further, so he was forced to retreat.
Built a vast empire, which included not only
good portions of Bihar and Bengal, but also western and north western India and
the Deccan.
This account is
given by Megasthenes (A Greek ambassador sent by Seleucus to the court of
Chandragupta Maurya) in his book Indica. We also get the details from the
Arthashastra of Kautilya
Chandragupta
adopted Jainism and went to Sravanabelagola (near Mysore) with Bhadrabahu,
where he died by slow starvation
History of Bindusara (297 –
273 BC):
Chandragupta Maurya was
succeeded by his son Bindusara in 297 BC.
He is said to have conquered
‘the land between the 2 seas’, i.e., the Arabian Sea & Bay of Bengal
History
of Ashoka (269 – 232 BC):
Ashoka was appointed the
Viceroy of Taxila and Ujjain by his father, Bindusara
Ashoka became the Buddhist
under Upagupta.
To mark the farthest point of his advance, heThe Kalinga War History : (261 BC,
mentioned in XIII erected 12 huge stones altars on the northern bank of Beas.
Remained in India for 19 months and died in
323 BC at Babylon.
THE MAURYAN DYNASTY
Chandragupta
Maurya History (322 – 297 BC):
With the help of Chanakya,
known as Kautilya or Vishnugupta, he overthrew the Nandas & established the
rule of the Maurya dynasty.
Causes of
the fall of Mauryan Empire :
Ashoka’s
patronage of Buddhism and his anti‐ sacrificial attitude is said to have
affected the income of the Brahmins. So they developed antipathy against
Ashoka.
Revenue from agrarian areas
was not sufficient to maintain such a vast empire as booty from war was
negligible.
Successors of Ashoka were
too weak to keep together such a large centralized empire.
Note: The last Mauryan king Brihadratha was killed by Pushyamitra Shunga
(Commander in Chief) in 185 BC, who started the Shunga dynasty in Magadha.
SANGAM AGE IN INDIA
History of Pandyas :
Their capital was Madurai.
First mentioned
by Megasthenes, who says that their kingdom was famous for pearls and was ruled
by a woman.
The Pandya kings profited
from trade with the Roman Empire and sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augus.
History of Cholas :
The kingdom was
called Cholamandalam or Coromondal. The chief centre was Uraiyur, a place
famous for cotton trade. Capital was Kaveripattanam/Puhar.
A Chola king named Elara
conquered SriLanka & ruled it over for 50 years.
Karikala was their famous
king.
Main source of
wealth was trade in cotton cloth. They also maintained an efficient navy.
History of Cheras
Their  capital 
was  Vanji  (also 
called  Kerala country).
It owed its
importance to trade with the Romans. The Romans set up two regiments there to
protect their interests.
Fought against the Cholas
about 150 AD.
Greatest king was
Senguttuvan, the Red Chera.
THE GUPTA DYNASTY
Gupta Empire Golden Age of
India
On the ruins of
the Kushan empire arose a new empire, which established its way over a good
part of the former dominions of both Kushans and Satavahanas. The first two
kings of the dynasty
were Srigupta and
Ghatotkacha.
Chandragupta
I (AD 319 – 335):
First important
king of Gupta Dynasty. Started the Gupta era in 319‐320 AD.
He enhanced his
power & prestige by marrying Kumara Devi, princes of the Lichchavi clan of
Nepal.
He acquired the title of
Maharajadhiraj.
Struck coins in the joint
names of himself, his queen and the Lachchavi nation, thereby acknowledging his
marriage alliance.
History of Samudragupta (AD
335 – 375):
The Gupta kingdom was
enlarged enormously by
Chandragupta’s son &
successor Samudragupta.
Samudragupta
believed in the policy of war and conquest and because of his bravery and
generalship he is called the ‘Napoleon’ of India (by the historian V.A. Smith).
History of Chandragupta – II
(AD 380 – 413):
Samudragupta was succeeded
by Ramgupta but Chandragupta II killed him and married his queen Dhruvadevi.
He was the first ruler to
issue silver coins. Also issued copper coins.
His court was
adorned by celebrated nine gems (navratnas) including Kalidasa,
Amarsimha,Varahmihir, and Dhanvantri.
Chinese pilgrim Fahien
visited India at this time.
History of Kumaragupta – I
(AD 413 – 455):
He adopted the title of
Mahendraditya.
Founded   Nalanda  
University   (a   renowned university of ancient India).
He was the
worshipper of Lord Kartikeya (son of Lord Shiva).
History of Skandagupta (AD
455 – 467):
Kumaragupta‐I
was followed by Skandagupta. Restored Sudarshana Lake.
After his death,
the great days of the Guptas were over. The empire continued but central
control weakened, and local governors became feudatory kings with hereditary
rights.
Gupta Literature in India :
Kalidas, the
great Sanskrit dramatist, belonged to this period. His books are:
Abhigyanashakuntalam, (considered as one of the best literary works in the
world & one of the earliest Indian work to be translated into European
language, the other work being the Bhagavadgita), Ritusamhara, Meghadutam,
Kumarasambhavam, Malavikagnimitram, Raghuvansha, Vikramurvashi etc. Out of
these, Ritusamhara, Meghadutam,
ONLINE TEST (TTA)
BSNL TTA ONLINE TEST RESULT COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 2

Leave a Reply